Monday, 26 September 2016

26th September 1816: The Duke of Rutland tells the Home Secretary that James Towle has confessed and implicated others

Cheveley Park 26th September 1816

Private & Confidential

My Dear Lord

I am sure that no apology will be required by your Lordship, when I mention that the Subject on which I [take] permission to address you, is one, actually of great Local, but possibly of considerable National Importance—Your Lordship is aware of the conviction of Towle, the Frame breaker, at the last Leicester Assizes, and of the objection taken to the Indictment, the validity of which remains to be decided by the opinion of the Twelve Judges—Since the Trial, Towle has, on several visits made to him by the Sheriff of the County, disclosed to the latter, some very important Confessions; having detailed the whole of the transaction of Loughbro’, and the mode by which the plot was prepared and brought to maturity; specifying seventeen persons who came from Nottingham & its neighbourhood, as Leaders in the affair; & making several other Statements concerning it, which correspond so exactly with the accounts which the Magistrates near Loughbro’ had previously collected, that there can be very little doubt of the possibility of making him a most effectual and important Evidence against the remainder of the Gang.—The Point which your Lordship will care to determine, is the policy of sparing this Man's life, provided it should appear that the Information which he can give, and may be disposed to give, is sufficiently interesting, to render it is a measure of greater public benefit, than merely inflicting the Vengeance of the Law, upon an Individual, who, though a distinguished Luddite, & conspicuous from having stood a former Trial for Framebreaking, is not, we have reason to think, held in very high Estimation among his Associates.—

I beg to apprize your Lordship, that Towle has not made the Confessions to which I have alluded, under the most remote Expectation of Pardon, nor has he I believe expressed as yet any willingness to give Evidence against his late Associates, but there is good reason to presume that he would be glad to do it, if there was a Prospect of his being enabled to live, out of the reach of the future vengeance of their Friends—It will also be evident to Your Lordship, that if you think is adviseable to act upon this Information, it cannot be too soon done; since Towle, who is now perhaps in the mood for confession, might materially alter in his disposition, if the Objection to the Indictment, should be held by the Judges, to be fatal, and his life should be safe from that cause—

Possessing a Knowledge of the Circumstances I should have thought myself, mainly deficient in my public Duty, if I had not hastened to communicate them to Your Lordship; who I am well convinced, will afford them, the consideration, to which their Importance justly entitled them. I am quite convinced, that a well organised league, and an extensive system of union, still exists among the Luddites & Frame Breakers, and it is the opinion of well Informed Magistrates in the County of Leicester (residing in the suspicious District) that further Mischief is intended, when the long nights of winter commence. It really appears to me, subject to the superior Judgement of Your Lordship, that the present occasion affords a chance, of giving a decided check, perhaps of putting a total end, to the disgraceful practice of Framebreaking, and to the dangerous Combination, under which that practice has been so long, and so successfully carried on—Should you think the subject deserving of further Investigation, I would suggest the Propriety of an Interview with Mr Pochin, the Sheriff for Leicestershire, to whom Towle has made the confessions, to which I have alluded, and I would in the event of your coincidence with this idea, request Mr Pochin to attend you, at your Office.—At all Events I am confident that Your Lordship will have the goodness to pardon the length of which I have been obliged to trouble you, and that you will allow me the honour of subscribing myself, with sincere Regard

My Dear lord
Your Most Faithful
& Obedient Servant

Rutland

[To] Viscount Sidmouth
&c &c &c

Sunday, 25 September 2016

25th September 1816: Large demonstrations of unemployed men occur in Leeds

On Wednesday 25th and Friday 27th September 1816, large demonstrations took place in Leeds, involving hundreds of unemployed men. The protests were against their predicament, but also directed at the publisher of the Tory Leeds Intelligencer, who had recently published editorials scoffing at the distress of the unemployed.

Both Leeds Newspapers carried reports and editorials about the demonstrations.

The Leeds Mercury of Saturday 28th September 1816 carried a long editorial:
On Wednesday last an assemblage of several hundred men, chiefly work-people out of employment, took place in front of the Leeds Intelligencer Printing Office, but after remaining in that situation for some time they separated, without committing any act of riot or excess. The motive of this meeting we have heard differently stated, but we believe the real object of the unfortunate people of whom it was composed, was to shew the town, and more especially to prove to the Printer of the Intelligencer, that the distress which has been felt and complained of in this town and district is a reality, and not, as he has indiscreetly and insultingly represented it, in his paper of the 16th instant, a mere "farce" and an "excellent joke." After the meeting in Cross-Parish a number of the people adjourned to the Workhouse, where the Committee, consisting of the guardians of the poor, was then sitting, and the applications for the relief of distressed families were on that day unusually numerous. 
In speaking of the public distress in this town, we have uniformly guarded with extreme caution against those exaggerations into which we think opposite sides have fallen. We have stated repeatedly, that according to our views, the Mayor's Letter to the Ministers of Religion in the town, coloured those distresses too highly; but his error was on the side of humanity; and we are far from thinking that he could be guilty of the folly of wishing to impart éclat to the conclusion of his mayoralty by seeking to obtain contributions for distress which had little or no existence. Such an insinuation it remained for those who condemn others for speaking disparagingly of authorities, to level against the chief magistrate of the borough. The truth of the declaration made from the hustings in Westminster we have also denied, not in degree, but to the extent. We have said, and we now repeat, that the distress is neither unequalled nor indescribable. But while we have combated these exaggerations on one side, we have with equal earnestness, and certainly with more feeling, denied pointedly and positively that the distress on which so much has been said, has no existence. Existence it unfortunately has, and to an extent too that no well regulated mind can contemplate without feelings of deep commiseration. But it is not sufficient that the public should feel; it is necessary that they should act; and we hope the time is not far distant, when the town of Leeds, properly convened, will have an opportunity of shewing that they are alive to the destitute state of  their distressed neighbours. In the mean time, it is the wisdom of men of all parties to sooth the public feelings, and to guard against those exaggerations, as well on one side as on the other, which are calculated only to convert into a subject of discussion, those misfortunes which it ought to be the business of all, by united efforts, to alleviate, if they cannot remove. 
It has been suggested to us, that all discussions on these subjects are prejudicial; and if he be meant all intemperate discussions, we fully concur in the truth of the observation. But if it be meant to deprecate all mention of the subject as well that which exaggerates as that which tends to place the matter in a sober and proper point of view, we must beg to express our decided dissent from such a proposition. Truth, humanity and justice, never suffer by investigation. The gloomy silence of studied suppression, is, if possible, more mischievous than even the language of violent discussion. It closes the door of hope. It appears like abandoning the cause of the poor in despair; and that we will never do while we have a mind to exercise and a pen to wield in their behalf. 
WHILE we are upon this subject, we must be excused, if we expose the extreme want of candour, and the palpable, and we will add, wilful misrepresentation that has taken place regarding the statements in our last paper. We never adduced as a proof of the public distress the fact that only 1046 men were out of employment in the whole of the West-Riding of Yorkshire; what we said was, that's 1043 men were out of employment in one particular department of a single branch of the woollen manufacture. It is dealing fairly with the public, is it honest towards the labouring classes, to make these wilful and deliberate perversions of the truth? Let any man of integrity answer that question. We did not, as a proof of public distress, say that an accumulated surplus of £400 was at this moment in the hands of the parish officers. What we did say was, that an accumulated surplus of £1800, which was in the treasury of the parish in May last, had since that time been reduced to £400. Are not these repeated efforts to deceive, a proof that they are a part of a system? and what must be done the nature of that cause that requires such support? 
It is in pursuit of this system, that the Dissenters of Leeds are represented as answering the solicitations of the Mayor "to contribute to the relief of their suffering brethren, with dry eyes and immovable countenances, quietly keeping their hands in their pockets, and protesting that they could not discover any objects on whom they could properly bestow their charity." Do the Dissenters deserve this reproach? Let the numerous charities in Leeds answer this question. Do they deserve, in a time like this, to be held up, in a public newspaper, as fit objects for popular indignation? Is this a just representation of their conduct, or of the language of the paper that might be supposed to speak their sentiments on the occasion in question? In the first place, the letter of the Mayor was not, as is here insinuated, confined to the Dissenters. It was sent also to the Clergy of the Established Church, who acted, and very properly acted, in the same way as the Dissenting Ministers. But is it true that "the organ of the party" denied the propriety of raising funds for the relief of the distressed? Did we not, on the contrary, recommend that the inhabitants of the town should be called together, "to devise a mode of relief, that should be, in some degree, commensurate with the distress it is meant to abate?" And yet our accusers have the unblushing effrontery to come forward and state publicly, that the propriety of raising funds, for the release of the distressed, was denied. We have long treated the calumnies and misrepresentations, flowing from the contaminated source in which these imputations originate, with silent contempt, and impunity has made the slanderers audacious. There have evidently been making an experiment upon public credulity, and endeavouring to compress into a focus the greatest possible mass of misrepresentation, calumny, and falsehood.
The same edition also had a shorter article about the demonstration on Friday:
Yesterday another assemblage of unemployed workmen took place in Briggate and Cross-Parish, from whence they proceeded to the Court-House, where the Magistrates were sitting, and paraded for some time in front of Park-Row. Though we are by no means dispose to censure these meetings with undue severity, the first of which might be considered in some degree necessary in order to prove by an argument the force of which could not well be resisted, the reality of the public distress; yet we must say, that we do not perceive any good, and we fear much ill, may arise from their repetition. We hope and believe, that no violence or outrage is intended; but all large bodies of men, assembled under such circumstances, resemble a magazine of combustibles, and who shall say that some incendiary hand, either from a mistaken zeal, or from worse motives, may not cast in a spark, the consequences of which would probably be less fatal to those without than those within the garrison? It is, we allow, a great evil for men that are willing to work to be unemployed; but there are still greater and more lasting evils. In a country like this, no man will be suffered to perish for want. The masters in general, are as anxious to give employment to their workmen as the men are to be employed. They have a common interest. One cannot be pinched by penury, but the other must be threatened with ruin. They are embarked in the same ship, and the crew may depend upon it that the officers will not suffer her to sink, if any effort of theirs can keep her afloat. The mess at present may be slender, but popular commotions would not strengthen it. We hope trade will soon begin to improve; we hear, indeed, that some alteration for the better has already taken place. In the mean time, the more opulent inhabitants of the town, will, we do not doubt, do their duty. There never yet was a well founded appeal made to them in vain. It is some consolation to know, that in many branches of trade work-people are tolerably well employed, among those may be ranked joiners, bricklayers, and handicrafts men in general; there are, to be sure, many exceptions, but the principal distress is found among those usually employed in the different branches of the woollen manufacture.
The Leeds Intelligencer posted the following editorial about what had occurred, and in response to the Leeds Mercury's comments:
In our Market-place, on Wednesday and Friday last, there was an assemblage of between three and four hundred men, who stated themselves to be out of work. They paraded in different places, but, we are happy to say, did not commit any violent acts of outrage. The general belief is, that the sole object of this assemblage was to convince us, that there were so many persons as composed it out of employment. 
As this belief is avowed by our opponents, we would ask, Why then, do they insidiously seize such a moment, to enter into a long strain of falsehood and declamation, in order to render us as odious as possible in the eyes are lower orders? They know we cannot treat them, in a reply, as they deserve, without the hazard of adding to that irritation which has already been excited, and which we are anxious to allay, not on our account, but for the sake of public tranquillity, and of the misguided men themselves, whose safety might be compromised by their own unthinking rashness. 
We have never contended that no distress whatever existed—that not any persons were out of employment;—this has, all along, been self-evident. What we have argued, and that merely in refutation of the Westminster Patriots, is, that the distress the poor, in this place, did not warrant the assertions of the redoubted Major Cartwright, and the truth of this is fully admitted, even by those who have taken the occasion to malign and misrepresent us. That even a single individual should be destitute of work, we lament as much as anyone—but we will not, though the task would not be difficult, cast back or recriminate the foul aspersions put upon us by our angry and insidious adversaries. 
To the proposal of those adversaries we fully agree, and are willing to abide by the judgment of an impartial public, which of the two has advocated the cause of Liberty, and which the cause of Licentiousness—which has contended for the honour of Britain, and which has supported the cause of her most inveterate enemies. In the real, unexaggerated distress of the labouring classes, and in the present depression of trade (which is not confined to this country, but which extends all over Europe, and even to America) we ever did, and ever shall, feel the deepest interest: and whatever our enemies may insinuate or threaten, we shall never be found wanting, as far as our feeble means allow, in giving our support to the cause of humanity. Have not our columns, on every agitation of great questions in commerce, and on the recent Wool Question in particular, been zealously crowded with articles to promote that commerce and the consequent employment and prosperity of the labouring classes? For the vigilance with which we have watched over their real interest, we are not afraid of a comparison with any paper in the Kingdom. Have we, in public or in private, ever withheld our mite from any effort to relieve public distress? We may be represented as enemies of the poor: but the consciousness of an exactly opposite character, and the invariable exercise of that character in the discharge of our duty, shall with us, as we trust it will with the Public, suffice better to silence the voice of calumny, than the prolongation of a discussion which several reasons render it improper to continue. For the actual difficulties that exist, both with respect to workmen and their employers, we trust the returning title of prosperity will speedily bring an efficient remedy, if it be not interrupted and frighted back by the designing clamour of those whose business it is to sow dissatisfaction, and to excite despair.

Wednesday, 7 September 2016

7th September 1816: A portrait of the weavers' distress in Bolton

The Leicester Chronicle of Saturday 7th September 1816 carried a report about the situation facing weavers in Bolton, Lancashire:
Out of 4635 looms at Great Bolton, in Lancashire, 1432 are standing still from want of employment. The same proportion of looms are standing in Little Bolton. Many more are on their last warps; and to increase the misery of the labouring manufacturers the masters are refusing to credit them any advance of wages.—The poor rates are doubled, but may be doubled again without affording the desired relief to the poor.

7th September 1816: Weather report from Lancaster

The Lancaster Gazette of Saturday 7th September 1816 carried a report about the weather:
The weather, since our last, has been uncommonly cold and rainy, for the season; on Sunday evening, the thermometer, in the house, was at 50; and at one o'clock on Wednesday last, it was only at 51. On Monday night, the frost was so severe as to kill all the cucumber plants, in the open ground; the potato tops also exhibit its ill effects. There was a heavy shower of hail, on Wednesday afternoon, at Flookburgh. The hailstones were very large, some of them measuring an inch in circumference.

Monday, 5 September 2016

5th September 1816: The Mayor of Derby requests troops to be sent to the Town

Police Office
Derby 5th September 1816

My Lord!

Being somewhat apprehensive that a larger force of military will be necessary to preserve the peace & tranquillity of the Town of Derby—I state the liberty of suggesting for the consideration of your Lordship the propriety of having a troop of Cavalry stationed there—The present military force consists, but of between 40 & 50 men of the 73d regiment of Infantry—

My fears arise in the vicinity of this place to the adjoining Counties of Nottingham, and Leicestershire; where it is well known to your Lordship, that great outrages have been committed, and that considerable disaffection to the Government prevails; & more particularly from circumstances within my own knowledge, which induce a belief—that many of the Frameworkknitters in this place are intimately connected, & have frequent communication with, the riotous persons, in the County above alluded to: and that it is intended to hold their secret meetings, and to arrange their nefarious plans in this Town, under the idea, it is presumed of it’s being comparatively unprotected.

Requesting the favor of some communication from your Lordship on this subject

I have the honour to be
My Lord!
Your Lordships obedt Servt
Rich Draper
Mayor

To
The Rt. Honble
The Secy of State
(Home Depart.)

Wednesday, 31 August 2016

31st August 1816: Daniel Harwood & Thomas Thody are executed at Norwich for their parts in the 'Bread or Blood' disturbances

Two accounts of the execution of the 'Bread & Blood' rioters Daniel Harwood & Thomas Thody appear in the local press, both of which are reproduced below. The executions took place on Saturday 31st August 1816,

The Norwich Mercury of 7th September 1816:
On Saturday last were executed at the Castle Hill, Thomas Moy, for sheep stealing, and Thomas Thody, and Daniel Harwood, for rioting at Downham. They were all of them men of honest and reputable connections, and were brought to their untimely end by Sabbath-breaking—by bad company of both sexes—by occasional intoxication, when in their power—and by following a multitude to do evil. As far as their time permitted, they endeavoured to atone for their former neglect of their duty to God, by assiduously employing themselves in devotional exercises, and there is reason to think that, had their lives been spared, they would have been better men, better subjects, and better Christians; but the prevalence and danger of the crimes for which for which their lives were forfeited and the necessity of making severe examples to deter others from similar crimes, rendered all applications in their favour to the higher powers fruitless. Their behaviour since they were left for execution, was meek and contrite; and they passed their weary hours in reading the Scriptures, in fervent prayer, and in attentively listening to the terms of salvation held out by the Saviour to truly penitent sinners. Having taken a last farewell of their relatives and friends, and an affecting leave of their fellow prisoners, and after being indulged in waiting till the last moment, in the forlorn hope of reprieve, they proceeded to the place of execution.—When the prayers appropriated to the solemn occasion were concluded, they submitted, with manly resignation, to the awful preparations for death. Harwood was first fixed to the fatal tree. Thody was the next sufferer, and he suffered indeed, as far as related to mental suffering: he had hitherto conducted himself with patient fortitude, and with a steady step had ascended the scaffold; but, when the rope was placed on his neck, the remembrance of his wife and children, whom he loudly called upon and deplored, overwhelmed his mind, and with agonising screams he would have fallen in a fit, had he not been supported by the exhortations of the Ordinary and of his fellow sufferers, and by the soothing attentions of those around him, he recovered soon from his fainting state, and stood up firmly while the executioner performed his office upon him and Moy, who was the last tied up. The raised part of the platform immediately fell, and they died with some convulsive struggles, in which Moy appeared to be the longest sufferer. No malefactors ever expired with greater sympathy from the immense multitude, which covered the whole surface of the hill joining the place of execution.—Thomas Moy, aged 32, was born at Guestwick in Norfolk, and has left a wife and seven young children. The pressure of the times had involved him in great distress; and he had undertaken to hire a farm of considerable extent at Binham, to which his circumstances were by no means equal. His relations are respectable, and the crime for which he suffered was the only one which brought him under the sentence of the law.—Daniel Harwood, aged 32, was a native of Gooderstone, in Norfolk, unmarried, and pursued an agricultural mode of life, by occasionally working with his waggon and team in jobs for farmers, as is the custom, in that part of the country where he resided, near Downham. This wandering manner of life led him into bad company, and together with a neglect of his religious duties, at length involved him in the riots which brought him to his untimely end.—Thomas Thody, aged 22, was born at St. Neots, in Huntingdonshire, and has resided several years at Necton, in Norfolk, where his father was coachman to the late Mr. Mason. He has left a wife and two small children.
The Norfolk Chronicle of 7th September 1816:
This day se’nnight, Daniel Harwood, and Thomas Thody, for rioting; and Thomas Moy, for sheep stealing, were executed on the Castle Hill, pursuant to their sentence at the last Assizes, amidst an immense concourse of spectators, who expressed their pity for the unfortunate but guilty sufferers.—The execution not taking place till half-past one, gave strength to the prevalent though unfounded rumour that a reprieve had been received for these unhappy men. Harwood and Moy behaved with great firmness; as did Thody until he was placed under the fatal tree. The recollection of his wife and children, and the horror of immediate death, then overcame his fortitude; he was nearly sinking down under an agony of grief and terror, which he expressed by convulsive shrieks, and was obliged for a short time to be supported by several men. By the admonitions, however, of those attended him on the scaffold, and of his two fellow sufferers, he soon recovered and underwent the last painful part of his sentence with manly resolution. During the short period that intervened between their condemnation, and execution, they received every help and consolation that Religion could afford; and they died with penitence, in the faith of their Saviour, and in a firm trust in the mercies of HIM, who is the great foundation of all mercy!—Moy was in his 33d year, he was born at Guestwick in this county, and his relations are respectable, he was (as we have before had occasion to notice) a farmer, occupying nearly a hundred acres of land at Binham; and has left a wife and seven young children.—Thody who has also left a wife and two children, was 22 years old, born at St. Neots, in Huntingdonshire, and has resided several years at Necton, in this county.—Howard, aged 22, was a native of Gooderstone, in this county, and unmarried.—We are authorised to state, in opposition to a report which has been pretty widely circulated, that none of these unfortunate men, had ever made any profession of religion among any body of Christians; but on the contrary, they acknowledge that they lived in an awful neglect of religious duties, and had been sinking in sin, prior to their commission of those crimes, which brought them to their unhappy end

Tuesday, 30 August 2016

30th August 1816: James Towle's execution delayed as he wins an appeal to the Court of Exchequer

On Saturday 31st August 1816, the Leicester Chronicle reported an update on James Towle's case:
A Respite for Towle.—The awful sentence of the law against this unfortunate man, is delayed being carried into effect until November next,—a respite for that purpose having yesterday been received by C. W. Pochin, Esq. High Sheriff.—It is conjectured, that the omission in the Indcitment will be the subject of discussion in the Court of King's Bench, before the order for the prisoner's execution is finally issued.

Thursday, 25 August 2016

25th August 1816: Burglary & frame-breaking near Stapleford, Nottinghamshire

The Nottingham Review of 30th August 1816 reported an incident that had taken place at midnight on Sunday 25th August 1816:
On Saturday night, about twelve o'clock, the house of a person named Bramley, who lives in a lane very near Bramcote-house, in the parish of Stapleford, was entered by a number of thieves, who broke four frames and robbed the house of a quantity of linen, some clothes, and part of a flitch of bacon. These robbers have not yet been apprehended, though we hope they will not escape the hands of justice.

Wednesday, 24 August 2016

24th August 1816: Joseph Bugg is executed at Ipswich for his part in the 'Bread or Blood' disturbances

The Cambridge Chronicle of 30th August 1816 gave sparse coverage to the execution of Joseph Bugg, who had been found guilty of arson at the previous Suffolk Assizes:
On Saturday last Joseph Bugg was executed at Ipswich, pursuant to his sentence at the last Suffolk assizes, for setting fire to a barn and cart-lodge, in the occupation of Mr. Glanfield, of Martlesham-hall. When exhorted by the chaplain to confess, he replied, he was in liquor, and did not know what he did; but after the Chaplain had left him, he confessed to the gaoler and the persons assisting, (just before he was turned off) that he set fire to a quantity of whins that were near the premises burnt. He was 26 years of age, had served in the Spanish campaign, and was much addicted to liquor.

Thursday, 18 August 2016

18th August 1816: Jeffery Lockett informs the Home Office that Luddites are involved with Hampden Clubs

Sir

In my last letter, I informed you, that Slater, who was acquitted at Leicester, was in Derby. He has been here ever since, and has been joined by ten or twelve other notorious Luddite from Nottm. They are certainly collecting money, and pretend to be employed in forming associations of workmen, in the Stocking and Lace manufacturies, both in this town, and the neighbouring villages, which they call "Hampden Clubs".—The names of the members are inrolled, and a system of communication is established, by which every club, within a certain district, can be assembled at an appointed place, in the most expeditious possible manner. Whether this is a scheme preparatory to the attempt of a rescue of Towle, or to create a disturbance at the time of his execution;—or whether the object of the associations is of a more general, and of political nature, has not yet been ascertained.

Hitherto Towle has shewn no disposition to discover his confederates.—They are in the greatest alarm. I know many of them in, and near Nottingham and Loughbro’ also, who were certainly concerned in the outrage at Messrs Heathcoat & Boden's factory, but seeing no chance of convicting them, without the evidence of an accomplice of an accomplice, I have abstained from taking them into custody.—If Towle should, as I shall think him he will, make any discovery, however unimportant it may be, it would be adviseable to take up every suspected person. The fact of Towle having given information might be divulged, and the particulars of it be kept profoundly secret—The Loughbro’ men who were concerned in the outrage, are novices in Luddism.—They would at once [infere] that they were apprehended in consequence of information given by Towle—and it is very probable that some of them would impeach—

I am afraid you will think me officious and troublesome. I am most anxious to give these wretches a check before the winter sets in—but I cannot act without authority; and since the death of the late Mr. Mundy there has not been a magistrate in this neighbourhood who has taken the same active part in public business, which he did.

May I request the favour of an early answer from you as I propose to go from home for a short time on Saturday next. I have the honour to be

Sir
Your most obedt Servt
Mr Jeffery Lockett
Derby Augt. 18th 1816

18th August 1816: The Home Office is informed of frame-breaking in Godalming, Surrey

Post office Godalmin
18th Aug 1816

Hon Sir

I take the earliest oportunity of informing you, that late on Friday Night, the 16th or early on Saturday morning the 17th Inst. some person or persons broke into the Fleecy Hosiery manufactory here belonging to Messrs Holland, Waistell, Horton & Co and stole some part and otherwise damaged 6 Stocking Frames, but not to any serious account supposing the depradation had been alarmed soon after he or they entered the shop and by that means made their escape without doing any further damage

at present their is hopes of descovring the people

I believe I am doing right in giving you this information according to the circular Letter I lately recd

I am
Hon Sir your most obedt St
[illegible signature]

Tuesday, 16 August 2016

16th August 1816: The trial of the Feltwell & Downham Market rioters, at Norfolk Assizes

The Norfolk Chronicle of 24th August 1816, carried an extensive report about the trials of those charged with rioting in Feltwell and Downham Market during the 'Bread and Blood' disturbances of the previous May. The trials covered two days, Friday 16th & Saturday 17th August 1816:

TRIALS of the RIOTERS at DOWNHAM and FELTWELL.
Before Lord Justice Lord Chief Justice Gibbs.

Wm. Bell, Amelia Lightharness, and Hannah Jarvis were indicted for having, on the 20th of last May, together with various other persons, riotously into and tumultuously assembled at the parish of Southery, in Norfolk, from whence they proceeded to acts of theft and violence in the town of Downham Market, which were specified by the evidence.

Francis Wiseman stated that she kept a pork and sausage shop in Downham Market; that in the afternoon of the 20th of May, a mob was assembled in the front of her house; that she observed the prisoner, Amelia Lightharness, looking in at the shop window, and that immediately afterwards the same prisoner opened the latch of the door, and brought in several of the mob, telling them, "this was the shop for good pork." The witness further stated, that her shop formed a part of her dwelling-house; that the prisoner Lightharness was the first that entered, and that at her instigation the mob ransacked the shop of the witness, taking away forcibly a quantity of pork sausages. The shop window was broken by the violence of the people.

Maria Palmer, Wm. Buxton, and Zachariah Stebbing severally corroborated the first witness, and the latter proved that all the above named prisoners entered the shop of Mrs. Wiseman, and concurred in the acts of violence there committed.—Bell and Jarvis severally produced evidence of good character. Verdict—all Guilty.

Thomas Thody, Charles Nelson, Daniel Harwood, the same Hannah Jarvis, Elizabeth King, Margaret Jerry, and Elizabeth Watson.

These prisoners were indicted as forming part of the same unlawful riotous assembly at Southery, as before mentioned, and for proceeding to assault Wm. Spinks, at Downham aforesaid, and stealing from his person certain quantity of meal and flour.

Williams Spinks stated that he was apprentice to Mr. Baldwin, a miller, at Downham, and at the time of this riot had the charge of his mill. That on the said 20th of May last, at about two in the afternoon, he saw a large number of persons approach the mill, whilst he was on the road about a furlong off; that upon is coming up to them he they demanded of him the key of the mill, which he delivered to them through the impulse of fear; that the persons so assembled had sticks and cudgels; that upon his delivering them the key the mill, they proceeded to lay violent hands upon the meal, flour, and sacks found therein, some part of which they threw about and destroyed, and other part they carried away with them.

This witness, together with George Gillingham, Susan Stebbing, Pleasance Laws, and Wm. Baldwin, or some of them, identified the persons of all the prisoners, and proved that Charles Nelson was the first to enter the mill. Verdict—All Guilty.

The same Thomas Thody, the same Daniel Harwood, Lucy Rumbelow, the said Amelia Lightharness, Wm. Youngs, Edward Mellon, and William Galley were indicted as parties to the same unlawful and riotous assembly at Southery aforesaid, and having proceeded to Downham, for breaking open the dwelling-house and shop of Samuel Bolton, a butcher there, and stealing therein and carrying away a certain quantity of pork, the property of the said Samuel Bolton, the said Samuel Bolton and another being in the house and being put in fear.

Samuel Bolton stated, that he had on the said 20th of May given to the mob some meat, in the hope of pacifying them; that about five o'clock in the afternoon of the same day, they came in a large body to his house and demanded more, which he said he was unable to give them. Upon this occasion, the prisoners, Thody, Harwood, and a man named Fendyke, who is still at large, appeared to be the ringleaders. Harwood said, if witness did not give them more they would have all there was in the shop.—The shop was shut and witness was standing at the door of his house. To this menace, uttered by Harwood, the witness replied, "he would be damned if they should," and immediately close and bolted the door, and went towards the kitchen, for the purpose of loading two guns, with which he meant to defend his property. Before he had reached his guns, however, the mob forced open the door, and stripped the shop of meat to the value of 5l. or 6l.

These prisoners were all identified as taking an active part on this occasion, by the concurrent testimony of the last-named witness, and Thomas Bolton, Zachariah Stebbing, and Ann Springfield.—Verdict—All Guilty.

The same Thomas Thody, the same Daniel Harwood, Frances Porter, John Bell and John Blogg were indicted as parties to the same unlawful and riotous assembly, and for breaking open the dwelling-house of John Parkinson, in Downham aforesaid, no person being therein, and feloniously stealing and carrying away a quantity of flour, and various articles of wearing apparel, found therein.

Hannah, wife of the said John Parkinson, who is a tailor and baker, and keeps a general shop at Downham, stated, that being terrified at the appearance of the mob, they had, on the said 20th of May last, shut their shop, and retreated to the house of a neighbour. The mob did proceed to Mr. Parkinson’s house and shop, as was expected, and after they were gone away the witness, with her family, returned, upon which they found the house had been broken open, and they missed from the shop hats, waistcoats, shawls, shoes, flour, and other articles.

The evidence of the last witness, corroborated by her daughter Charlotte Parkinson, Richard Gamble, Thomas Mallet Bailey, Wm. Gamble, Charles Smith, and James Weston, was sufficiently clear to establish the charge against all the prisoners except John Bell, who had not been seen in the house, but had been afterwards met with hats under his arm.

The latter prisoner was therefore acquitted, and the others found—all Guilty.

John Sterne was indicted for larceny only, he having on the said 20th of May demanded cheese of Wm. Oakes, at Downham.

Wm. Oakes stated that the prisoner came with a mob and demanded cheese, which he delivered to him through fear, observing at the same time that he himself wanted it as much as they did. Samuel Johnson, the landlord of the Crown Inn, at Downham, stated, that on the same day the prisoner Sterne brought a cheese to his house, and divided it among the mob, who were there assembled. Verdict—Guilty.

The same John Sterne, the said Thomas Thody, and John Pearson were indicted for breaking open the Crown Inn, at Downham, together with other persons, for assaulting the said Samuel Johnson, the landlord, and stealing from his person meat, beer, and other provisions. Mr. Johnson identified the persons of the prisoners Thody and Pearson as having been foremost of the party who first broke in by force, but the prisoner Sterne was not observed by him until he (Sterne) produced a cheese, which was sometime after the forcible entry. Sterne was therefore acquitted upon this indictment. The other prisoners were found both found Guilty.

In addressing the Jury upon the several indictments for riot, the Chief Justice very clearly explained the law to them, that in tumultuous assemblies of this nature, not only the parties which commit any acts of violence are answerable to the law, but likewise all persons who, by joining a mob, give a sanction to their unlawful proceedings, were in the eye of the law equally guilty of any outrage which was committed by any of such mob, with the party by whose hand the fact is actually done. In directing the verdict of the Jury respecting the attack made upon the dwelling-house and shop of Mr. Bolton, his Lordship observed, that if, by any act of the mob, murder had been committed upon the person of Mr. Bolton, or of any of his family, all the persons composing that mob would have been equally guilty; but on the other hand, if Mr. Bolton, in defending his property, had killed any of the persons who made this attack, he would have been justified in doing so. In allusion to the good characters which most prisoners adduced in their own favour, with respect to the honesty and peaceable habits of their former lives, the Judge emphatically observed, that nothing could more clearly shew the necessity of suppressing such disorderly and mischievous proceedings as were subjects of these trials. Persons who had heretofore acted honestly, and had been good members of society, had now, by deluding one another in the vain hope of addressing those grievances which their proceedings only tended to aggravate, evinced their peaceable dispositions by unlawfully assembling to the terror of well disposed persons, and their honesty by forcibly seizing the property of others.

His Lordship further stated, there where facts were so clearly proved as they had been in most of the above cases, the character of the parties ought to have no weight in the verdict of a Jury, although in measuring the punishment of the offenders, their respective characters would not be forgotten. It was in cases of doubt only in which the former characters of prisoners should weigh in the minds of Juries.

John Cracknell, Jeremiah Lawrence, and Thos. Pleasance, were indicted for having, on the 18th of last May, feloniously assaulted Thomas Willett, a shopkeeper, and Feltwell, and having at the same time stolen from his person two Bank notes, of the value of one pound each.—Mr Willett stated, that on the morning of the said 18th of May, he saw a body of people, to the number of from 50 to 100, including boys, collected together in Feltwell; that they stated their intention of proceeding to destroy the Dam, which the witness stated he himself, and, he believed, the whole parish deemed a very desirable measure, as the Dam was considered injurious to the inhabitants. That on the return from the Dam, at about five in the afternoon, they assembled in the front of his house, and on his coming out, he saw the prisoner Cracknell amongst them, who pulled off his hat, and said, "I hope, Sir, you’ll please to give us something." The witness then asked what his neighbour, Mr. Fuller, had given them, and was answered, that he had given twenty shillings. The witness, therefore, gave them a one pound bill; upon which some persons from the back of the mob cried out that they must have two pounds. Mr. Willett then gave another.—In answer to some very pertinent questions from the Chief Justice, Mr. Willett said, he considered the first one pound as an encouragement to the people for their day's work in destroying the Dam; but he admitted that he gave the second through a fear that his windows might be broken if he did not.

John Place stated, that he saw the prisoner Pleasance amongst the mob before Mr. Willett’s house, which he described as a company of people.

John Thorpe saw Cracknell and Pleasance amongst the company of people before Mr. Willett’s house, and saw the notes given by Mr. W. to Cracknell.—On his cross-examination he said, some of the people called at Mr. Willet’s house to know if he thought it right that the Dam should be destroyed; to which Mr. Willett had replied, that "it was a thing that was necessary." That the company of people then said, they should call to be paid for their job on their return.

The Judge then stated to the Jury, that as the counsel for the prosecution did not press this case, they might acquit the prisoners, which was done accordingly.

He then desired that Mr. Willett might not go out of Court, and enquired whether or not the Grand Jury were discharged, and appeared disappointed at being answered in the affirmative.

Upon Mr. Willett being again called before his Lordship, the latter stated, that he should refrain from mentioning names, but there had been few persons in the bar before him, on the several charges for rioting, who had incurred more, in so much blame, as the persons who had been concerned in encouraging the measures of those who had destroyed the Dam at Feltwell. Those were the persons who had given rise to the mischievous consequences that had followed two days after at Downham.

Mr Serjeant Blossett, as the leading Counsel on the part of the Crown, then stated to the Jury, that it was now that he first learned the real complexion of the late disturbances at Feltwell. If such persons as Mr. Willett gave encouragement to the mob, as has been shewn by the evidence, that which followed amongst the lower orders could excite no surprise.—Having convicted the ringleaders at Downham, sufficient had been done to answer the purposes of the prosecution on the part of the Crown, which could only be to shew persons who were disposed to join in such tumultuous proceedings, that those transactions cannot take place with impunity, for that a day of reckoning must come sooner or later.

The SENTENCES.

The Chief Justice now proceeded to pass sentence of transportation for seven years on John Sterne, who had been indicted and convicted of larceny only, in stealing a cheese from Mr. William Oakes, of Downham, the charges against him not having been laid capitally.

This being done, the following prisoners, who had been capitally convicted of rioting, 16 in number, (viz. William Bell, Amelia Lightharness, Hannah Jarvis, Thomas Thody, Charles Nelson, Daniel Harwood, Elizabeth King, Margaret Jerry, Elizabeth Watson, Lucy Rumbelow, William Youngs, Edward Mellon, William Galley, Frances Porter, John Blogg, and John Pearson), were called before his Lordship to shew cause why Sentence of Death should not pass against them to die according to law. The Chief Justice, then, in a very impressive manner, passed that solemn sentence upon them. His Lordship stated, that on account of the good characters which some of them had borne, it would afford him high satisfaction if circumstances should appear to justify him in recommending their cases for a relaxation in the severity of their punishment. Nevertheless, he wished them not to be deluded into any ill founded security. There were amongst them some who had excelled their fellows, and had stood foremost in the execution of their misguided and wicked actions. To these he could hold out no hope. His Lordship concluded by exhorting them all to use well the short time which might remain to them in this world, and to make their peace with Him before whom they must soon appear in the next.

Of the above 16 prisoners who received sentence of death, two only are left for execution, viz. Harwood and Thody. All the others were reprieved.

After the ringleaders had been tried and convicted, the following minor offenders were discharged on giving security for their good behaviour, viz. John Jerry, Harrison Bone, and John Bowers.

16th August 1816: 'An appalling picture of distress' in Sutton-in-Ashfield, Nottinghamshire

The Nottingham Review of 16th August 1816 published the following sobering passage about the distresses being experienced amongst framework-knitters in Sutton-in-Ashfield:
A Correspondent in a large village in this neighbourhood, has sent us the following appalling picture of distress; and we are sorry to say, we have every reason to believe, from the account given by an inhabitant of the place, who called upon us this week, that so far from the facts being too highly coloured, on an investigation they would be found to exceed the representation here given: we are told that one farmer in the parish is now paying 15s. per day, as a poor rate; and we know for a certainty, that for a smart house, the rental of which is 3l. 10s. a year, the tenant is paying between two and three shillings a week to the same rate. That such a state of things cannot long continue, must be evident to every reflecting mind:—"The situation of Sutton-in-Ashfield is truly miserable. There are no less than fourteen Sick Clubs or Institutions for the relief of each other in cases of inability to follow their occupations, containing above twelve hundred members, who have stopped paying and receiving during the present distress, for the want of employ, which renders it impossible for the greatest part of them to pay their contributions, and consequently must have been excluded, is such an expedient had not been resorted to. Many are in the practice of procuring fire fuel by going two or three miles to the coal pits with wheelbarrows, and some join in numbers at a cart or a waggon and divide them when they have drawn them home. Out of the number of almost two thousand frames, not one hundred have full employ; and those who have hitherto paid poor rates, are called upon to an extent of distress which is unparalleled."

Monday, 15 August 2016

15th August 1816: An anonymous writer sends a letter about James Towle to the Home Secretary

My Lord

I take the liberty of communicating a few ideas to your Lordship respecting Towle the Frame breaker, presuming that it is the duty of every Individual to make known anything that may appear to Him calculated to put an end to a System so dangerous and destructive the Ulterior (tho not avowed) object of which is the subversion of the Government and whose ramifications extend not only to the Counties of Nottingham Derby and Leicester, But in a greater or less degree to the metropolis and most of the Counties in the Kingdom This is not theory I assume you—Towle I believe is ordered for Execution at Leicester I blieve next monday, Now my Lord you may depend upon it many days will not elapse after that is done before there will be an attack upon the Lives or property of some persons in Nottingham, numbers of the Gang have declared it with the most horrid threats and imprecations since trial. Now I would propose for the man to be respited for a month and try whether He would not give such information as might lead to detection if not respite Him again repeatedly He might be stubborn at first but Human nature would not bear Him out long in it dreading an execution from one month to another, contrasted with an offer of life—a reward—and a secure removal to another Country. He must and would give way and if He could not be the actual instrument of bringing Them to justice He might furnish such a Clue as would ultimately be the means of doing it—This at any rate would be the result of this respiting Him, it would preserve the Lives and property of several Individuals in Nottingham, whose houses are now as a prison to them, especially if He were informed that His Death would be the immediate consequence of any further outrage by His party—As it may be a long time before the fact can be proved against another of them, and particularly as They threatened not to leave a person alive where They commit depredations in future, it would be highly impolitic to bury with this man all present hopes of bringing Them to justice—As it is not now a Local business but one in which the Existence of the Government may shortly be involved I hope your Lordship will excuse the liberty I have taken and am [sorry] from the fear of a Letter getting into wrong hands I dare not subscribe myself any other than your Lordships

most Obedient Servant
and a Loyal Subject

Nottingham 15 Augt 1816

[To: Rt. Honble Lord Sidmouth]

Sunday, 14 August 2016

14th August 1816: Jeffrey Lockett sends an update on the Nottinghamshire Luddites to the Home Office

Sir

The conviction of James Towle has excited considerable alarm amongst the Luddites.—They are very actively employed, and are certainly plotting some further outrage, but whether they meditate the rescue of Towle at the time of execution,—the further destruction of frames,—or some act of personal violence, has not yet been ascertained—Slater, who was acquitted at Leicester, and about ten or twelve of the Luddites, concerned in the outrage at Loughbro, have been in Derby since yesterday morning.—They are very closely watched,—and the guard at the Depot has been increased.—In Nottingham there is a great forment.—Every person concerned in the trial of Towle is marked,—and every possible attempt is made to irritate the populace, and evade a prejudice against him.—Scarcely an hour passes without some threat reaching me;—and you will see from the enclosed handbill, that Barnes and Lawson (two Nottingham police officers) who were examined on the trial, are particularly pointed at, as the principal cause of the conviction. The Review newspaper, which will be published on Saturday, is to contain a full account of the trial,—reported, no doubt, in such a manner as to increase the present vilification. I will take the liberty of sending you one of the papers.

It is most anxiously hoped that the Secretary of State will direct the reward of 500gs to be distributed amongst the police officers and witnesses: Without such encouragement it cannot be expected that they will exert themselves hereafter, have as they have done on the present occasion, and expose themselves to the anger which is inseparable from this service.

I have [etc]

Mr Jeffrey Lockett
Derby August 14th: 1816

[To John Beckett]

[Enclosed Handbill follows]

A particular true Statement of the
Trials & Sentences
OF THE FRAME BREAKERS,

Which took place at LEICESTER Summer Assize, 1816.

THE Public anxiety has been so feeling alive, respecting the result of the late pending Trials at Leicester for Frame-breaking; and has been so much, and so repeatedly trifled with by vague and uncertain reports, that to relieve it at once from longer suspence and uncertainty, may not prove unacceptable to the readers of this Statement, particularly in Nottingham and its Neighbourhood, from its locality to the scene of action, and the interest feeling excited in the breasts of the friends and relatives of the unfortunate men implicated in the business. This we trust will be a sufficient apology for publishing the following NOTE, which was sent from the Court, by a Professional Gentleman, for the express purpose of satisfying the enquiries of the Friends of the Accused. We choose to give it verbatim from the original Note itself, (with which we are particularly favoured) leaving the Reader to make his own comments upon it.

THE NOTE.

"SLATER and BADDER is acquitted—TOWLE is condemned; but there is a hopeful Point of Law will be raised on the Indictment, which if the Judge Graham will point to be law before the Twelve Judges, will very probably invalidate the Indictment, and procure his liberty. Towle’s confession as proved by [Barnes] and [Lawson] (Nottingham Constables) has been the principal means of his conviction, connected with other evidence.

“Towle is charged in the Indictment, as a PRINCIPAL in firing the Pistol. The Jury have returned a verdict of Guilty, but not of FIRING THE PISTOL. Upon which a Point of Law also arises. He is also charged as an ACCESSARY, but not as an ACCESSARY FELONIOUSLY, upon which Point of Law also arises.

“The Judge has promised to pay particular attention the Points, so that there are yet some hopes."

(Ordonyno, Printer, Nottingham.)

Saturday, 13 August 2016

13th August 1816: Preston weavers use sabotage, attack home of local MP & mill-owner

The Leeds Mercury of 24th August 1816 carried an article from the Preston Chronicle about unrest in Preston on Tuesday 13th August 1816, much of it targeted at the local mill-owner & MP for Preston, Samuel Horrocks:
We are sorry to state that in consequence of the manufacturers being necessitated to reduce the wages on some descriptions of cotton goods, a disposition to break the peace was manifested, by a party of weavers parading the streets of this town, on Tuesday last, and in some cases, destroying the shuttles of such as were inclined to continue at their work. Towards evening they had accumulated to a considerable body, and after consulting together they proceeded to the house of Mr. Horrocks: not finding him at home, some of the part, chiefly boys and women, commenced an attack, by breaking the windows of the house, and tearing up the shrubs in the grounds; but these outrages, not being seconded by the main body, were but of short duration. Next morning they assembled in still greater numbers at the outskirts of the town. They were met by a great posse of serjeants and corporals of the Lancaster militia, stationed in the town, who in a few hours dispersed the mob, after taking some of the most active into custody. The precautionary views of the Magistrates induced them, on the first indication of riot, to send for a party of military to Liverpool, but order was completely restored before they arrived; and the weavers have now settled themselves quietly to work again.—Preston Chronicle, August 17.

Thursday, 11 August 2016

11th August 1816: The solicitor, Jeffery Lockett, informs the Home Office of the outcome of Leicester Assizes

Leicester August 11th 1816

Sir

I have the honour to inform you, that, after a trial which began yesterday morning at seven 'clock, and lasted till half past nine at night, James Towle was convicted of shooting at John Asher, during outrage at Messrs Heathcoat & Bodens factory at Loughbro in June last, and Samuel Slater was acquitted. The counsel for the Crown did not think it adviseable to put Benjamin Badder on his defence.

An objection was made to the indictment and the learned Judge, tho’ he gave a strong opinion against it, said, that he would give it further consideration. In the opinion of the counsel for the Crown, it is of no weight, and it is anxiously hoped that it will neither prevent, nor delay the execution of the convict. I have stated the point, in a letter which I have addressed to Mr Hobhouse, who prepared the [indictment].

You have probably heard of an intended attack of Mr Justice Graham, Mr Clarke the barrister, and the Jury, at Nottingham, if the persons who were tried there for framebreaking, had been convicted.—The trial was protracted till two 'clock in the morning.—The court was filled with Luddites, and very inadequate preparation was made for the preservation of the peace.—The outrage was plotted whilst the Judge was summing up, and observing upon the evidence, and information from various sources, warrants the belief, that if a conviction had taken place, an attempt would have been made to assassinate his Lordship.—The horrid noise which was made in court, so intimidated the Jury, that they acquitted the prisoners against the summing up of the Judge, and the conviction of their own [understandings]. Here the best possible preparation was made by Mr Mansfield, the Mayor, for the protection of the court—The town has been literally filled with Nottingham people of the worst description, since Wednesday night, but not the least disturbance has happened—I [should] have been happy, if I could have added, that the attempts of the prisoners’ confederates to intimidate the Jury had been unsuccessful.—The prisoner Slater owes his acquittal to the intimidation of the Jury.

The prisoners gave in a list of fifty six witnesses to be examined in their defence.—They attempted to impeach the [credit] of the prosecutors witnesses by proving declarations made by them, in contradiction of their evidence given at the Bar;—and to shew, that they were at other places at the time of the outrage.—This part of their conspiracy is brought to a most alarming state of preparation;—for tho’ there was not one of the witnesses who were called, who was not prepared from the beginning to the end of his evidence, they resisted cross examination most successfully, and their evidence must have prevailed, but for the accounts given by the prisoners themselves in the course of their examination before the magistrates previous to their commitments.

The reward of 500gs offered in the Gazette will certainly be claimed.—The loss of Messrs Heathcoat and Boden from this outrage, cannot be less than £10,000;—further value of the demolished frames is at least £6000;—they have wages to pay to nearly one hundred men under contracts;—and they will lose six months profit from a valuable trade.—They will therefore consider their legal liability to pay their reward,—and the strict right of the claimants to demand it from them.—Considering that this is the first capital conviction of a Luddite,—that Towle has been a leader of the conspiracy from its first formation,—that much useful information has been acquired,—and that men have been found bold and honest enough to give information, & evidence which has led to the detection & conviction of the principal offender;—it may be hoped that Government will not suffer this disposition to be checked, but will pay the reward in consideration of Messrs Heathcoat & Boden. Upon this subject I must request the favor of an early communication from you;—and [illegible] also be pleased to inform me; whether any thing further is to be done towards the apprehension of the persons, concerned in the outrage. Many of them are known, but they have not been taken into custody, because we have had no evidence to convict them—but the conviction of Towle will probably lead to further discoveries.

I have to apologize for the hasty manner in which I have been obliged to address you on this occasion.

I am [etc]
Mr Jeffery Lockett

[To: J. Beckett Esqr]

Wednesday, 10 August 2016

10th August 1816: Henry Enfield informs the Home Office of the Luddites plan to assassinate the Nottingham Assize Judge

Nottingham August 10th 1816—

Sir

The Secret Report, of which I now enclose you a Copy for the Information of Lord Sidmouth, was made too late yesterday to enable me to send it by yesterday's post, which I should otherwise have certainly done.—It contained a confirmation of a most dreadful rumour, which has been current during the present week, of a plan having been matured in the Crowd attending the late Trial of Glover and Chettle for Framebreaking, to attack the person of the Judge (Mr. Baron Graham) in case the prisoners had been convicted.—The Trial took place last Saturday at the Assizes for this County, and was protracted, by the multitude of witnesses called on the part of the Prisoners in their defence (the defence being in each case an Alibi) until the late hour of 2 in the morning.—

I sent to Leicester yesterday a confidential communication to Mr. Clarke (the leading Counsel for the Crown) of this confirmation of the rumour—leaving it to his discretion whether to impart it to the Judge.—

The Trial of Towle, Slater and Badder was to come on this morning at Leicester—we are anxiously waiting to know the result.—

I remain
Sir
your hble Sservant

H Enfield

[To] Jas. Beckett Esqr

10th August 1816: The trial of James Towle, Benjamin Badder & John Slater, for the 'Loughborough Job'

The Nottingham Review of 16th August 1816 carried the most complete version of the second trial of the most notorious figure in Midlands Luddism, James Towle, along with his co-accused, Benjamin Badder and John Slater:

LEICESTER.

Trial of Towle, Slater, and Badder.

SATURDAY, AUGUST 10, 1816.

About seven o'clock this morning, the trial of the above-named persons came on before the Hon. Baron Graham. The indictment charged James Towle with having, on the night of the 28th June, or early on the morning of the 29th of same month, entered the premises of John Heathcoat and John Boden, of Loughborough, and having discharged a pistol loaded with a ball or slugs at John Asher, with intent to kill him the said John Asher; and John Slater and Benjamin Badder, with being accessary thereto.

JOHN BODEN is partner with John Heathcoat in a bobbin-net lace manufactory, at Loughborough; left the factory at eleven o'clock on Friday night, the 28th June last, when all was safe—six framesmiths, besides men who were at work and three other men as guards, were on the premises when witness left; there were fifty-five frames upon three floors, viz. in setting-up shop, two unfinished; first floor, twenty-three; second ditto, thirty—was alarmed and apprised of the outrage at a little before two, but did not go to the factory till about five o'clock, when he found the whole of the machines and some of the windows broken—witness saw some blood in a box on the floor, and some splashed against the wall; the greater part of the lace upon the frames was quite destroyed; estimates the injury done at 7 or £8,000—have been prevented going on with their business ever since. Witness dispatched Benjamin Silvester, Joseph Sherwin, and Cumberland, the Loughborough Constable, to Nottingham Police-Office, that morning.

Cross-examined by Mr. Balguy.—When he left the place, about eleven o'clock, there might be eight or nine men in the factory besides the smith—did not take particular notice of the exact number, nor of the persons of the workmen who were then present; he only knew one or two of them.

ELIZABETH SILVESTER said, her husband was overlooker of the smiths at Heathcoat and Boden’s factory; went up stairs to bed; it was a quarter past twelve when she stepped into bed; lives in a house opposite and situate near, the factory, in Mill-street; she was alarmed "by a great muttering of talking," which was so loud, that it appeared to proceed from a considerable number of persons; her candle was not then put out; she got up, immediately opened the window, and looked out for a few moments, but saw nobody except a neighbour, (John Sour), who was standing at his own door, which is next to witness’s; he went towards the factory; shortly after witness heard the same noise, and a whistle, with a threat, that if she did not put out her light, her brains will be blown out, when, being very much frightened, she retreated towards where the candle was; witness did not see whence they came; when there was a whistle, they seem to come from all roads, in great numbers; heard a gun discharged at her window; in the mean time, heard them say, "All’s well!" and then whistled; thinks a gun was fired at Rushworth’s house, which is opposite witness’s, as she heard them threaten him in the same way as they did her; having left the house door unlocked, witness went down stairs to lock it, and being very much agitated, she fell down three steps; heard them say, "Fire through the key-hole," but did not hear them fire at her. Soon after, she heard the machines and some of the windows broken, and then a firing, which appeared to be at some distance. The frame-breaking did not continue more than half an hour by witness’s watch, after which there seemed to be great numbers pacing the street, occasionally exclaiming, "All’s well!" Heard somebody say, "Don't break windows, there is friend Kilburn’s there," and also, "That all was done, and one man was killed." Thinks their feet move towards the Ashby Road; heard firing six or seven times, when all was over.

JOHN ASHER—is a framesmith and was in the employ of Messrs. Heathcoat and Boden on the 28th of June—was on guard that night as a watchman to the premises—watch ought to have consisted of five or six smiths but two were gone out—Thomas Ironman, Webster, and witness, were on duty, and Silvester and German were out, they had three pistols and a musket with a fixed bayonet—is not sure whether there was more—witness sat opposite the door in casting shop—was first disturbed at a quarter past twelve with a noise, and footsteps coming up the yard to the door, by hearing the report of a pistol, and directly after seeing three of four men stand in the door-way—witness took a pistol off the shelf pointed it at them and turned his head another way—when some one ran into the shop, and witness was shot in the back of the head and fell down insensible, but soon recovered his recollection, and found himself on his face under a bench, with his head adjoining Webster’s shoulder and bleeding profusely—at this time heard them breaking machines—had one and sometimes two men placed over them as a guard, who threatened to blow their brains out if they looked up; after laying about twenty minutes, witness said, "I wish you would send for a doctor, or I shall bleed to death,"—there was no answer, but the man who guarded them, seemed to speak to another man on [illegible] [illegible]. In ten minutes or a quarter of an hour afterwards, a man came from the yard to know how the wounded man was—he said "How are you," "Very bad," I replied. He then asked me if I could do a bit longer. I told him I could if he would not be long—he said he would not,—five minutes after they left the premises;—as they were going, one said to another, "shake hands with the wounded man"—Webster put his hand out and shaked hands—another man said, "that's not the man."—He then said—"Put your hand out" and shook hands with witness, who thinks the hand was a small one—witness was three weeks before he was well of the wound.

Cross-examined by Mr. Balguy.—Witness crawled home between two men—was much agitated when the men entered, so much so that he forgot to cock his pistol—is not certain who the person was that shook hands with him—nor can he say whether the person came from the yard or not.

MR. PALMER is a surgeon, at Loughborough; were sent for at twenty minutes past one—found Asher laying wounded on the floor in casting room; he had received a wound from a slug in back part of the head, which was afterwards extracted—[witness here produced it]—it had not penetrated the skull; Asher was three weeks or a month under his hands.

JOHN WEBSTER was a workman at Heathcoat and Boden’s factory on the 28th June—at a quarter-past twelve was in the casting-shop, along with Asher and Ironman, expected some of their fellow workmen's return; witness was not above the yard from the door—there was a blazing fire and a candle burning when the assailants entered; it was a short-eight candle; the casting-shop is a small room—three came first; one of them a little man, rather before the other; the little man had a pistol in his hand, and passed witness’s right hand, and went forward—witness attempted to escape from the premises, but was stopped at the door by several of the party, who surrounded him and presented pistols; three of them were put close to his head, while one man held an axe in the same position—the former saying, that if he moved, they would blow his brains out, and the latter, that he would knock them out—the man with the axe was a tall man; had light enough to see his face when looking up at the axe—is sure, quite sure, that Slater, the prisoner, is the man—hearing a pistol go off by witness’s head, he gave up and lay down on his face, thinking resistance unavailing—witness observed Towle’s features particularly, as he passed him—so much so, that he knew him again when he saw him—Towle passed as near to him as possible, so as not to touch him; he was only disguised by having a handkerchief over his chin, not so high as his mouth—did not particularly notice the third man, but he had some sort of the steel weapon in his hand—saw no firelock when first man entered, nor a long piece of any description, in any of their hands; there were two muskets at the far side of the shop, one with a fixed bayonet, the other without—thinks more than twenty persons entered—before "the business was done," heard somebody come from setting-up to casting-shop, and asked Asher, "if he was mortally wounded"—he replied—"he did not know, he was very weak"—he then required Asher to give him his hand; but witness, understanding he meant his, extended it for that purpose, and thought the hand a very small one for a man.

Cross-examined by Mr. Denman—Was not so much frightened until he heard the pistol fired; has seen Towle in custody, and at the gaol, several times; knew him again "directly he clapped his eyes upon him." Only saw Slater once in gaol, and never saw Towle from that night till he saw him in custody; witness picked Slater out of the three, on the Wednesday week after. Witness gave his evidence before he heard of the reward; saw a PART of the hand-bill the day after posted in Loughborough, "but not the FULL of it;" knew there was a reward of five hundred pounds, but thought it applied only to those concerned in the outrage. Witness described Towle before the magistrates. Does not know George Woollerton, but saw Mr. Ayres, his employer, on Saturday morning. Did not think it prudent to tell every body all he knew of the affair; never gave him any reason to suppose that they were disguised. Witness knows John King, and admits that he told him, and several others, that he could not recognise the prisoners; he was advised so to do by the magistrates, to avoid unnecessary questions daily put to him; witness did say that he thought he could swear to two voices; never said to Samuel Kilbourn that they were in disguise, and it was impossible to recognise them; he told William Burson, on Sunday morning, that he knew none of them.

Re-examined by Serjeant Vaughan.—Witness felt himself much injured, and would give himself no trouble to satisfy any body on the subject. He has no doubt of Towle being one of the men that entered the premises; he knew him when he first saw him in custody; and is equally confident as to Slater being another, he recognised him also when he first saw him after the outrage, which was at Leicester.

JOSEPH SHERWIN worked with Messrs. Heathcoat and Boden on the 28th June last, as a framesmith—he was in the top room, on the night in question, and was alarmed by pieces firing off—and soon after hearing somebody exclaim, "blow their brains out"—heard a "large muttering of talking outside the factory," and a noise in the room below, proceeding from breaking the frames—thinks he was got out of his frame at that time—looked for the fire arms, but did not find them—went down stairs and found a pike, but it was too long to use on the staircase—then procured a large file, and taking a candle out of the stick, went to the top of the stairs where somebody was chopping at the door check, and soon after observed the door open, and again put to—he then went down stairs, and forced it open with the file, but had scarcely done so, than a man presented a firelock at his breast, saying—"D**n your blood, stand fast, or I’ll blow your brains out," on which witness said—"Stop my friend, I can use a musket as well as you can,—when the man cried out, "Ned, come forward with those four blunderbusses, and directly came forth a man armed with two pistols, followed by another with an axe upon his shoulder, who turned his face back, and desired witness to go up stairs to the top shop, which he did, accompanied by three men, who commanded him and the other men at work, "to lay down on their faces, or they would blow their brains out," which summons the witness and his companions instantly obeyed—there was four lights with reflectors, burning at the time, which enabled witness to observe the faces of two men minutely; saw Towle first, he had an handkerchief on his face, which fell below his chin while witness was stooping; is "quite certain sure" the prisoner at the bar is the man, as he was only three or four yards from him; Towle had a musket in his hand. Saw Slater first in custody at the Anchor, in Loughborough; thinks he was one of the men, as there was a large limbed man, but cannot swear to his face. Supposes there were sixteen or seventeen men in the room at the time of breaking the machines. Heard some of them say, as he lay on the floor, "Blow their brains out, if they stir," and others said, "No! Do not hurt them," if they lay ten minutes and do not move. Having broke the machines, they set fire to the lace, when one said, "Ned, have you done your duty well?" "Yes," replied another, "we have;" then went towards the stair-case, but observing two other machines in another part, they said, "There are two more," and so broke them, and went away. About two hours after, witness was dispatched to Nottingham, in a post-chaise, and arrived there before six o'clock, and saw the police-officers, to whom he gave a description of all the three men he saw on the stairs.

Cross-examined by Mr. Balguy.—Four of the men were upstairs with him; Powell, Streets, Squires, and Smith—Trueman, Webster, and Asher were below,—the gun was not quite up to Towle’s shoulder—he had not a candle in one hand, and a musket in the other—he was about a quarter of a minute on the stair-case, but cannot swear how long—it might be longer than a minute—he saw part of that man’s face who had the axe, but not enough to know him again—when witness went from the top shop, he believes there were no lights but those in the frames,—the shiner or reflector is used to throw light on the works, but it does not make the room lighter—he could not take particular notice of the third man's face, but could swear to him if he were in the same dress. He cannot tell when he first heard of the reward—he never thought of it, when he was examined before the magistrates—he does not expect any of it to his knowledge—never thought of the reward till people told him he should have a part of it—he believes he shall have a part of it—does not know William Henshaw to his knowledge—Robinson married witness’s sister; he went to Robinson’s house soon after the frames were broken—his sister and Robinson were up—every body was talking about the frame-breaking—did not say that he did not know any body that came into the factory—does not remember saying any thing about the disguises—he never said any thing about the men having their coats turned—cannot say any thing at all about what he said about them having their faces blackened—cannot tell whether he said so or not. John Rose was in his company the same day at the Talbot, but witness never told him, that neither he nor any body else, could swear to any of them—acknowledged that he said to Bilson that he did not know any of them, but at that time his life was threatened—admits that he has said, "that he could not swear to any, but should like to swear to two, because they would have taken our lives, if it had not been for the other Ludds"—has been at Leicester several times—saw Badder in gaol; has also seen Towle in the gaol-yard several times; he attended on the examination of prisoners—Mr. Munday and Mr. Lockett told witness not to say any thing about what he knew.

ANN MACKIE is wife to -------- Mackie, who works for Heathcoat and Boden—she was held a prisoner by the Luddites a short distance from the factory, upwards of forty minutes; during which a man came up with an axe, and lifting it up over her head, said, "It will not do or us to let her escape we had better do for her,"—the man that guarded her replied, "No, if she will stand still her life shall be spared"—the man with the axe was a broad-set man—there was not light enough to see his face—he only remained a little time.

JAMES LAWSON, is a police-officer of Nottingham; has known Towle some time; recollects seeing him at a public-house in Nottingham on the Tuesday preceding the outrage at Loughborough, and had a deal of conversation with about his having been tried for frame-breaking, which Towle observed would have been a job with him, if they had found him guilty. Witness advised him to leave off that kind of life. A confusion arising in the house, witness and Towle went out together into the street, where they resumed their conversation. Towle said he was out of employment, and when he went round and was asked his name, they immediately said, "Oh! it is you that was tried for frame-breaking!" He said, "He was over-persuaded, and felt so much hurt, he hardly knew what to do with itself," many of their SET were doing well, while he was used ill, and he had a good mind to SPLIT upon them. Witness’s wife coming up at this time, he said, "He would be d----d if he would trust a woman with a secret," and so stopped speaking for a moment, and then resumed by saying, "There was something brewing, and there would be a job before it was long—it would happen next Friday night, unless put off, and then it would take place on Saturday night!"—"we then parted, and I bid him good night." Having communicated this intelligence to the Mayor, numbers were employed on the look-out in Nottingham; witness was one engaged on the occasion.

Cross-examined—Towle well knew that he was a Police officer.

BENJAMIN BARNES is Nottingham Police officer—saw Sherwin on the morning of the 29th June last—in consequence of his description of one of the men seen by him at the factory, he looked after James Towle that morning—about seven o'clock he set out towards Beeston through New Basford, where Towle lived, and having arrived about the middle of the former place, he observed prisoner coming from towards Loughborough—it was about eight o'clock in the morning—Towle seeing witness approach him, made a stop, and turned his face to the hedge, on noticing which witness rode on a little, and then turned again, and on overtaking him, he endeavoured to avoid letting witness recognize his face, by appearing to look at something over the hedge—witness however spoke to him, saying, "James, how are you, you seem very fatigued this morning?"—"Yes," he answered, "I am very unwell." Witness asked him if he would take a glass, to which he assented, and they went to a public house door, where Towle had a glass of gin, and they parted—his shoes seemed wet, and the dust had settled upon them. On Monday, July 1st, I had a warrant to apprehend him—"went to his house at New Basford and took him, handcuffed him to myself—on arriving at Nottingham, we went to a public house to until a chaise could be got ready—when there he wished to go in the yard, which I permitted him to do, handcuffed to White, a constable, from whom he contrived to escape, by slipping his hand out of the handcuffs, (which were the smallest sort to be met with,) but was re-taken soon after in the Market-place. When employed to take Towle to Leicester, he said to witness, in coming down Red-hill, (the place where criminals were formerly executed,) "Well, I shall have a ride as far back again as this hill, I suppose." On witness asking him "what he meant by that," he said," he was sure to be hung, and hoped witness would call upon his mother, and say, that he desired, in case he should be hung, that she should would beg his body, and let it be placed alongside Bamford, at Basford." Witness said, he would not deliver such a message; but he would take an note for him—Towle then observed, "it was through seeing him (Barnes) at Beeston, that he was apprehended. The axe was found at Badder’s, and a hammer at Slater’s, in the coal cupboard.

MR. DENMAN here observed, that the Counsel ought to make their election on which set of counts they mean to stand, Towle being charged both as a principal and accessary.

MR. BARON GRAHAM said, it was not a case of that description.

MR. DENMAN then took an objection to the wording of the indictment, owing to the word "feloniously" having been omitted before the words "entered the premises," &c. and contended, that such an omission must proved fatal to the indictment, since it was not according to the act of parliament, under which the prisoners were indicted.

SERJEANT VAUGHAN, on the other side, maintained, that as the words, "felony aforesaid" came shortly after, the omission complained of, was of little consequence, and therefore opposed the acquittal of the prisoners on that ground.

The Learned Judge observed, that it appeared to him at present, that there was no ground upon which the indictment could be done away; but if hereafter, it should appear otherwise, the prisoners should certainly have all the advantage of the omission; but he must say, he felt pretty confident at the present moment, that the objection could not be sustained.

The Learned Judge here called upon Towle and Slater for their defence; both observed, they left it to their Counsel. Budder was not called upon for his defence, upon which his Counsel requested he might have his irons taken off, but it was not allowed; he was permitted, however, to sit down.

JAMES POWELL, was employed as watchman to Heathcoat and Boden, on the night of the 28th of June last. [It being observed that this witness was in a state of intoxication, his evidence was not permitted to be taken, he was therefore ordered from the bar.]

SAMUEL STREET worked at Heathcoat and Boden’s factory on the night of the 28th June last—thinks thirty or forty men entered the upper shop—he counted them by their steps, as he lay down—could only see one distinctly.

SAMUEL KILBOURN asked John Webster if he knew the frame-breakers—he said he did not, they were so much disguised—he even did not know one of them.

JOHN ROSE knows Joseph Sherwin—he told him at two o'clock on the Saturday morning, he could not swear to any of the frame-breakers.

WILLIAM BILSON has conversed with Sherwin—he told it was impossible to know them—their coats wee turned.

JOHN RICHARDS lives at New Basford, within seventy or eighty yards of Towle’s—saw him at nine o'clock on Friday night, the 28th of June—he had a paper cap on, and was getting potatoes in his garden—witness spoke to him, and observed "what fine potatoes they are"—Towle answered, "Yes they are."

JOSEPH MELLOR, is a carpenter and builder, lives at New Basford; had been at a rearing supper at the Robin Hood and Little John, in Nottingham, on the 28th June last; left it after 11 o'clock—knows James Towle; saw him between eleven and twelve o'clock the night in question; there was a light in his house, saw prisoner come to his door, and throw something out—said, "Hallo, Towle!" and he replied, "Hello, Joseph, where have you been?" to a rearing, said witness, and then passed on—got home about twelve—heard of frame breaking at twelve next day—has no doubt of Towle’s person.

Cross-examined by Mr. Clarke—Lives half a mile from prisoner’s house—witnesses has known him since he was a child—is now twenty-one.

JOHN BRADLEY lives at Basford; remembers being at Towle’s house at half-past eleven o'clock on the Friday night; went to borrow a candle for his wife to seam stockings by, in order that he might set out early in the morning to Nottingham, in search of work—resides only a few yards from Towle’s—saw him soon after eleven in his (Towle’s) own house—witness went to bed at half-past eleven, or thereabouts; got up next morning about ten minutes past four, to go to Nottingham—saw Towle at work in his frame at half-past four—Basford is seventeen miles from Loughborough.

Cross-examined by Mr. Clarke.—Witness applied to Mr. Beardmore for work—saw him at half-past six—Towle was nursing his child at half-past eleven the night before—thinks he was stript.

PETER JENKINSON lives at Old Basford; is a paper-maker—he got up between three and four o'clock on Saturday morning the 29th June, to call up his fellow-wormen, that they might leave off an hour or two earlier in the afternoon—saw Towle at work in his frame between four and five o'clock as he passed by to call up Harrison—on his return, stopped and spoke to Towle for a minute.

Cross-examined by Mr. Clarke.—Witness lives half a mile from Harrison's—it struck four when he got up to give him the key.

Re-examined by Mr. Denman—It is a rule among his shop-mates the first up calls the rest.

THOMAS MELLOR is a butcher; got up at four o'clock on Saturday morning the 29th of June to go to his shop, which is behind Towle’s house; saw prisoners and his wife at work in the frame at half-past four o'clock.

GEORGE ARCHER knows Slater; he worked with him in June last; left him at work at eight o'clock on Friday night, at witness’s house; returned at nine, but he was gone; saw him the following morning at seven; he assisted him to get up work; always considered Slater as an honest and industrious man.

THOMAS PALMER lives in Nottingham; has a garden a short distance from the town; was returning from it on Friday night, the 28th of June, about half-past nine; observed Slater in his garden, which is near witness’s, and held half an hour's conversation with him, then went into town together, where they parted, one going to the right, the other to the left.

JOSEPH SMITH is a brass-cock maker, and lives in Narrow-marsh, Nottingham; remembers being at the Leg of Mutton public-house on Friday night, 28th of June last; on hearing the clock strike eleven, he were left the house, and as he was coming home he met with Slater, whom he has known more than two years, and spoke to him; he was a few paces from his own door, without his hat, and said, "How did you do, John?" he replied, "Very well." Witness thinks he was going towards the privy.

SAMUEL HAYNES lives at Nottingham; recollects leaving the Duke of Wellington public-house in company with S. Fletcher, about eleven o'clock on the Friday night; saw Slater standing beside his door, when passing his house with Fletcher.

SAM. FLETCHER, is a framework-knitter; was with the last witness at the Duke of Wellington public-house on the night of the 28th June last, and came away about eleven o'clock; parted with Haynes at his entry end; saw Slater at his own door, and had a few minutes conversation about the state of trade; met a person named Rhodes, and stood talking with him a few moments. Witness made no secret of having seen Slater.

DENNIS RHODES remembers seeing Slater on the Friday night, conversing with Samuel Haynes, and a another man, a stranger; they were standing at Slater’s door. Witness asked Haynes the news of the day; did not stop long, but went on.

THOMAS BEE, lives next door but one to Slater; has known him six years; he is a very honest and industrious man.

WILLIAM SHARP is a miller and baker in Nottingham; has known Slater nine years, "never knew his character to be impeached with dishonesty."

AARON BOWLER has known Slater a long time; believes him to be an honest and industrious man.

JOHN SMITH lives at New Basford; has known Towle fifteen years; never heard any particular harm of him; considers him to be a man of "tolerable character."

GEORGE BINGHAM lives in Millstone-lane, Nottingham; has known Slater seven years, sometimes worked with him; never knew of this character being any but a good one.

THOMAS SANDERS "is an independent gentleman," and lives at New Basford; has known Towle several years; he has been a quiet good character and neighbour.

MR LOCKET here produced the deposition made by Towle before the magistrates; from which it appeared, that the prisoner dined and supped at home on the Friday; that at half-past nine he was in his garden, getting a few potatoes for supper, and that in the morning he got up early and went to Long Eaton, from whence he returned the same morning.

The Learned Judge then recapitulated the evidence, impressing upon the Jury the importance of the matter submitted to their consideration, and calling upon them to weigh the different circumstances which had been detailed before them, with all that deliberate attention, which the subject required.

The Jury, after a few minutes consultation, gave their verdict—Towle, Guilty of aiding and abetting, but not of firing the pistol.—Slater and Badder, Not Guilty.

Counsel for the Prosecution—Serjeant Vaughan, Serjeant Copley, Mr. Clarke, Mr. Reader, and Mr. Reynolds.—Solicitor, Mr. Lockhart, of Derby.

Counsel for the Prisoner—Mr. Denman and Mr. Balguy.—Solicitor, Mr Wilkinson, of Nottingham.

When the court broke up, it was between nine and ten o'clock, the trial having lasted upwards of fourteen hours.

We cannot withhold that need of praise which is so justly due to C.W. Pochin, Esq. the High Sheriff, for his admirable precautions to prevent any kind of riot or disturbance, which at one time was seriously apprehended. Not being possessed with that military mania which is too prevalent in the present day, he proceeded in a truly constitutional manner, to collect together the civil power of the county, and as we are informed, upwards of 600 constables were in attendance; these proved themselves abundantly sufficient to preserve peace and tranquillity, in the midst of a greater multitude of people, than was ever before assembled together on one such occasion in Leicester. We should like such an example to be more generally followed, for in that case, we should not behold the military called in on every trifling occasion.

In it's report, The Tory Leicester Journal of 16th August 1816 gave the following on the composure of Towle:

[Towle] had a determined aspect throughout, and received sentence without any apparent emotion whatever.

10th August 1816: Leicester bourgeoisie turn out in force to protect the Assizes Judges

The 16th August 1816 edition of the (Tory) Leicester Journal described the scene early in the morning immediately prior to the commencement of the trial of James Towle and two others for frame-breaking at Loughborough:
Saturday morning presented a most interesting a grateful spectacle: the violent and disgraceful proceedings which are stated to have occurred during the late Assizes at Nottingham, and which were said to have intimidated the Jury, from a conscientious discharge of their duty, induced a large portion of the most respectable inhabitants of this town, to rally round the Constituted Authorities, and give their aid towards the faithful administration of Justice. At 6 o’clock between two and three hundred assembled at the Exchange, each receiving a white wand and a club, and headed by the Chief Magistrate, proceeded in fours to the Judges lodgings, where they formed on each side of the street, after the Judges had entered their carriage, they escorted them to the Castle, and the trials of the LUDDITES were immediately proceeded in.