Monday, 31 October 2016

31st October 1816: Henry Enfield sends the latest informer's report to the Home Office

Nottingham October 31. 1816.


Enclosed you will receive, for the Information of Lord Sidmouth, a Copy of last night’s Secret Report—The Account of the Attacks upon Carnell's House &c seems to correspond altogether with Carnell’s own Account—You will find an important Circumstance at the close of the Report, relative to a Soldier, one of the Regiments stationed at Nottingham—

I have [etc]
H. Enfield

[To] The Rt Honble JH Addington

31st October 1816: Henry Enfield reports a 'renewal of framebreaking' to the Home Office


I inclose, for the information of Lord Sidmouth, a Statement of a renewal of Framebreaking—It furnishes another instance of the Accuracy of our Agent’s Information—for, you will recollect, he told us, in his Report of the 24th Instant of this intended Attack upon the wide Frames at Bulwell—

I write with you in your Sentiments relative to the Watch & Ward Act, expressed in your letter with which I have been honored this Afternoon—& sincerely hope that its Effects will realize the expectations raised—"The Constables", however, alluded to in the Report of the 24th Inst, as having prevented the Excursions of the Nottingham Luddites, were the Police Officers whom the magistrates have for a considerable time past had out upon nightly Patrole. The Watch & Ward went out for the first time on the 26th Inst

I have [etc]
H Enfield

[To] Rt Hble J H Addington

Sunday, 30 October 2016

30th October 1816: Informer's report on Nottinghamshire Luddites

30th October 1816.—

I went to the Kingstone's Arms last Saturday according to appointment saw Fell, Joe Gelsthorpe and Peter Green there—Fell said he had asked Holbrook and Beef Smith to go to Bulwell and they both refused.—He had not seen Shaw or Abel Smith.—He meant to see them and let me know the next night, but he did not come and I went to Mansfield on Monday morning and staid there till last night.—I have heard that Shaw went to my house on Monday night but have not learnt for what.—This morning I was with John Lomas Junr, and said to him, why these chaps have not done the job as they should of done (alluding to the Frames broke at Bulwell on Monday night) He said "Oh they were only Basford chaps and only 14 of them"–They broke into a House where there were no Frames and I asked him how that happened.—He said they were told better but made a mistake and got the wrong end of the row.—He said they intended coming again with more strength as there were 5 or 6 Basford Chaps that did not come as was expected.—They shot at Carnall's Window he said—He told me that one of the went into Carnall's bed room and threatened to shoot him and he  begged of them not to hurt him as he had no Frames there and told them where they were and to go and use their pleasure, and one of them said "Damn you give me the Pistol and if you wont shoot him I will" but the man having the Pistol refused to do it saying we’ll only break his Frames—I have not learnt who were there except, Lomas (I believe) was one from what he told me.—Joseph West told me this morning that they meant to come again from Basford last night but were put off but that they would be there again this week—I have heard nothing more about the House of Industry at Basford—This afternoon I saw Badder at the Goat and we had some talk about the Job done a Bulwell.—He said he was glad to hear of its being done as it would take the attention off of Nottm and we should get 2 or 3 of our jobs done.—On Sunday he and Slater and Peter Green came to my house and told me to get my arms out of the house as there was a Police Officer coming down from London to search for and seize all Arms to prevent a Revolution.—

I can give Information to Hollingworth if I should know before hand when the intended Job at the House of Industry is to be done.—

It was stated to night at the Fox that there has been a serious riot at Birmingham that some Soldiers had been shot, when a Soldier with the 73d said they were damned fools for shooting at the Soldiers for they were ready to help them if there was an opportunity and they would soon see which side the soldiers were for if they would all rise together—This was spoken openly in a large Company.—

Badder, Adam & Winrow were there.—

The proceedings of G. Henson are approved of.*

*This alludes to the prosecutions against Hosiers for paying their Workmen otherwise than in money—H.E. [i.e. Henry Enfield - a note added to the report]

30th October 1816: Croppers lose wages case at Pontefract Sessions

A court case regarding Croppers' wages that came before Pontefract Sessions is a good example of how the spectre of Luddism was invoked to arguably alter the outcome. It is noteworthy that the case lasted 14 hours. The case was reported in the Leeds Mercury of 2nd November 1816:

[Illegible] [Beresford], Oct. 30th, 1816.

This was an action to recover the sum of £3 17s. 9d. due to the Plaintiff for wages on the balance of an account, three pounds and three pence was paid into Court; the only question was, whether the further sums of seventeen shillings was also due unto Plaintiffs. As this cause has excited some interest, we shall, without entering into a detail of the evidence, state the nature of it in as few words as possible.

The Plaintiffs are working cloth-dressers, and the Defendant is a master cloth-dresser, residing in this town. In the month of July last, the Plaintiffs were employed by the Defendant to dress for him 23 pieces of cloth for the Russian contract. It was stated by the witnesses of the Defendant, that when about six of these pieces had been done, Mr. Lister stated to the Plaintiffs that the pieces were only to be backed and not half dressed, an operation which was explained as requiring less labour, and that the price would be reduced from five to four shillings a piece. This proposal being demurred to, Mr. Lister said he would give the same price as other dressers gave for goods dressed in a similar manner. No objection appears to have been made at the time to this proposal: but upon a settlement of accounts, the Plaintiffs demanded 5s. a piece, and refused to take less. Several witnesses were also called to shew that 4s. shillings a piece was as much as was given by other dressers, and was a fair and full price for this species of dressing, and that by reasonable industry 30s. a week might be earned at that rate. On the part of the Plaintiffs several witnesses were called, the object of whose evidence was to prove, that the alteration in the price had not been mentioned to them until the whole of the pieces, except three or four, had been dressed; it was also contended by the Plaintiffs, that as the whole 23 pieces had been delivered the Plaintiffs to dress at the understood price of 5s. a piece, no alteration in this parcel could take place without the consent of both parties. Mr. Hardy said, there were two questions for the Jury to decide: first, was there a special contract? if there was, was that contract four or five shillings a piece? If there was no contract, the Jury would then have to determine from the evidence, what was a full and fair price for the labour performed upon the cloth. If they found that there was a contract, and that the contract was for 5s. a piece, the Plaintiffs would be entitled to recover the sum claimed. If four shillings a piece was the contract, the Defendant would be entitled to a verdict. If there was no contract, the Jury would then find for the plaintiffs or for the Defendant, as the evidence should satisfy then, that five or four shillings was a fair price for the dressing of this cloth. Mr. Hardy said, the Jury were to dismiss from their minds all the insinuations which had been thrown out as to the Plaintiffs belonging to an illegal combination; this was a charge, which, whether true or false, they had nothing to do with. Mr. Hardy then proceeded to make some observations on the ruinous nature of these kind of combinations; he observed, that labour, like all other things, would best find its own level, and that all confederacies to keep it up were destructive, because they had a tendency to drive trade and manufactures to other countries, and he mentioned Nottingham as an instance of the fatal effects of this system, and stated, that in consequence of the frame-breaking, which had been so long carried on there, the manufacturers were rapidly removing from that town neighbourhood, and that these deluded men had taken the most effectual means of depriving themselves of the means of subsistence. The Jury found a verdict for the defendant.

The Court, with the adjournment of one hour, remained sitting from ten o'clock on Wednesday morning until about two o'clock in the morning of the following day.

Saturday, 29 October 2016

29th October 1816: Nottinghamshire Special General Sessions enforces Watch & Ward Act

Newark—October 30th 1816—

My Lord

I the honor to transmit your Lordship a Copy of the Adjudication of the Justices of this County made at a Special General Sessions held at Nottingham yesterday, for enforcing the provisions of the Watch & Ward Act in several places therein mentioned.

I have the honor to be,

My Lord,
Your Lordship’s most obedient
& very humble Servant
[Edward] Smith Godfrey
Clerk of the peace

[To] Lord Sidmouth—

[adjudication follows]

Nottinghamshire—At a Special General Sessions of the Peace of our Sovereign Lord King holden at the Shire Hall in Nottingham in and for the said County on the 29th day of October in the fifty seventh Year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord George the Third And in the Year of our Lord 1816—Before William Sherbrooke Esquire The Right Honorable Sir John Borlass Warren Baronet Knight of the Bath the Reverend George Holcombe Doctor in Divinity Robert Padley William Elliott Elliott and William Fletcher Norton Norton Esquires The Reverend Thomas Beaumont John Kirkby William [Claire] Samuel Francis Dashwood and Robert Lowe Clerks Justices of our said Lord the King assigned to keep the Peace in the said County and then in there convened and assembled to take into consideration and to determine upon the expediency of carrying into effect all or any of the Powers and Provisions of an Act of Parliament passed in the 52d Year of the reign of his present Majesty entitled "An Act for the more effectual preservation of the Peace by enforcing the duties of Watching and Warding until the first day of March One thousand eight hundred and fourteen in places where disturbances prevail or are apprehended" and which Act has been revived and continued by subsequent Acts.

Whereas it appears to this Court That disturbances are apprehended in the several Parishes Townships or Places hereinafter mentioned and that the Officers ordinarily appointed are insufficient for the preservation of the Peace and for the protection of the Inhabitants and the security of the Property being or lying in such Parishes Townships or Places respectively It is adjudged and declared that the Officers ordinarily appointed are insufficient for the preservation of Peace and for the protection of the Inhabitants and the security of the Property being or lying in such Parishes Townships or Places And that every Man residing within such Parish Township or Place above the age of Seventeen Years and charged or assessed to the rates for the relief of the Poor therein shall be subject and liable to the Duties of Watching by night and Warding by Day according to the Provisions of the Act of Parliament before mentioned And it is Ordered that the Powers and Provisions of the said Act be carried into Execution within the several Parishes Townships or Places following (viz) Annesley—Arnold—Basford—Bulwell—Felley—Hucknall Torkard—Hucknall under Huthwaite—Kirkby—Linby—Mansfield—Mansfield Woodhouse—Newstead—Papplewick—Skegby—Selston—Bagthorpe—Sutton in Ashfield—Tiversall—Beeston—Bilborough—Bramcote—Chilwell—Cossall— Eastwood—Greasley—Watnall Cantelupe—Watnall Chaworth—Newthorpe—Moorgreen—Kimberley—Brunsley—Lenton—Nuttall—Radford—Strelley—Stapleford—Trowell—Wollaton—East Bridgford—Orston—Whatton—Elton—Aslockton—Granby—Carcolston—Flintham—Hawksworth—Kneeton—Langar—Screveton—Scarrington—Thoroton—Cotgrave—Ratcliff on Trent—Shelford—Newton—Tollerton—Bunny—Barton—Bradmore—Clifton—Keyworth—Plumtree—Ruddington—Wilford—Costock—Gotham—East Leake—Normanton on Soar—Rempstone—Sutton Bonnington—Bulcote—Burton Joyce—Carlton—Caythorpe—Calverton—Colwick—Epperstone—Gonalstone—Gunthorpe—Gedling—Hoveringham—Lambley—Lowdham—Oxton—Stoke Bandolph—Snenton—Thurgarton and Woodborough—

By the Court
Clerk of the Peace

29th October 1816: William Sherbrooke tells the Home Secretary that martial law is needed in Nottingham

Sessions Room Shire Hall Nottingham
29th Octr 1816

My Lord

The Magistrates conceive that the Orders under which the Military stationed in this District are acting, are perfectly constitutional and correct as far as regards common Riots and Commotions, and that the Military force should act in aid of the civil power, but never be substituted for it—The Magistrates beg to represent to your Lordship that the Outrages committed in this County are of a different nature from common riots, that persons meet together resembling an armed Banditti, rather than a Mob for the purpose of committing Felonies and Burglaries—

There are some villages within half a mile of the Barracks (near Nottingham) where Outrages of this nature are apprehended, and from the Orders that the Military now receive, they cannot move from the Barracks, altho’ the Felonies and Burglaries should be committing in their Sight unless a Magistrate is with them to give Orders, consequently the Property might all be destroyed and the Felons dispersed before the nearest Magistrate could possibly be present—

The Magistrates submit to your Lordship the expediency of extending the Orders of the military stationed in this District as far as the Laws of the Country will permit and the present state of the County may seem to require—

I have [etc]
W: Sherbrooke

The Rt Honble Lord Sidmouth &c &c

29th October 1816: Luddites break 4 wide frames in Bulwell, Nottinghamshire

At around 1.30 a.m. on Tuesday 29th October 1816, a group of Luddites raided properties in Bulwell, Nottinghamshire, and broke several wide knitting frames.

Reports in the regional newspapers were brief, but one of the targets of the raid, Thomas Carnell, later gave a deposition to the authorities, which is below. Carnell was a frameworknitter & gamekeeper who appears to have let out frames that he owned:
Thomas Carnell of Bulwell Frameworkknitter—About half past one yesterday morning I was alarmed by the Dogs barking in the Stable—I jumped out of bed directly and took up my Gun which was by my bed side, and went to the Window & took the Window Curtain down and endeavoured to raise my Gun in a direction to fire upon the persons in the Yard—It was very dark and I could not see the persons—but I could hear them under the Wwindow, saying “Damn your eyes, come along"—Whilst I stood at the Window which was but for a very short time there were 3 or 4 pieces flashed in the pan from the persons below.—I drew to one corner of the Window and immediately two pieces were fired loaded with Shot, into the Window—The Window was broken & the Shot lodged in the Window Frame and in the room also.—As soon as they had done that, they struck the house door twice as appeared to me with a Big hammer or Hatchet—The door was thereby immediately forced open.—and they ran up Stairs crying come along, bring a light, and they turned to the Shop—and some of them said "Damn his eyes, go and kill him, shoot him", and one of them immediately forced my room door, having a Candle in one hand and a Pistol in the other—and a Handkerchief tied over his mouth and Nose—he never Spoke—he came about half a yard into the room and seeing me he drew back again immediately and drew the door to with his hand, I told him there was nothing there for him, and the first man that came in I would shoot him—he appeared a Broad set man about 5 ft 6 or 7 dressed in a dark colored Coat and light Waistcoat & Hat—I was sitting upon my bed with my Gun presented when he came in—It was primed and loaded but I did not fire, for I was afraid of my life—After the man went out of the room, 3 or 4 of them seemed to be standing at the door, others were in the Shop breaking the Frames, & others were down stairs out of Doors saying "All’s well"—"Those in the Shop were shouting "Damn it break all Wide Frames, don't break Narrow Frames"—None of them spoke to me—I do suspect Summers of Arnold to be one from Voice—but I could not swear to him—They might be 20 minutes in the house & all went away together & at the yard end one of the party called over the numbers, saying 5, 10, 15 &c &c—I suppose this was done instead of calling the names—and that the men answered to the numbers—one piece was then fired off and several others flashed—They went into another part of the Village and broke into an unoccupied house and broke 2 wide Frames, one working to me—They then tried to break into the house of one John Keys—but the door was very strong and did not give way—I left my house with my Gun & went with my uncle & Thomas Marriott towards that part of the Village where the men were gone & I fired off both my Barrels* and shouted and halloed to give the alarm & I believe that this alarmed them and that they went away on that account—My uncle next morning traced the marks of many feet towards Arnold—I went yesterday to Mr. Rolleston a Magistrate to give him Notice— 
The Frames broken in my house were 4 wide Frames, value £40—they Frames were very much destroyed—There were several other wide Frames of mine in Bulwell.— 
30th October 1816.. 
*Carnell is a Game keeper

Friday, 28 October 2016

28th October 1816: A Nottingham magistrate fears the Luddites set Belvoir Castle alight

Leamington Octr 28th 1816


I have inclosed you a Paragraph out of the Norwich paper which I have every reason to believe is perfectly correct in its statement: there is no doubt of such a Committee existing & also that the Corporation of the Town Nottingham are very well acquainted with the Individuals composing it—they set the Civil power completely at Defiance, and give directions to ill disposed Persons acting under them, to commit depredations, that are not only disgraceful to the Town, but County of Nottingham—under these circumstances as a Magistrate for the County, I have taken the liberty of Informing you of what is going forward & of requesting you will be so good as to acquaint in what manner Government would wish the magistrates to act against these persons, as something ought to be done & that without loss of time or there will be, I fear, very serious disturbances. This Post has just brought me a letter out of Nottinghamshire saying that part of Belvoir Castle was burnt last Saturday night & it is thought, was set on Fire by some wretches who have [threatened] his Grace of Rutland Lt Brownlow & several other Gentlemen & my House in the Vale of Belvoir, Wiverton was also [illegible]—would not long remain standing; the County magistrates have put in Force the Watch & Ward act & will I am certain, do every thing in their power to prevent the repetition of the disgraceful acts that have been committed, & may be & providing Government – will interfere so as to put a stop to this Committee, all will go on quietly

I am at this moment remaining at Leamington for my health, but I shall return into Notts early in the Following week & any Directions that you will send me, shall be immediately put into execution–

I have [etc]
John Chaworth

28th October 1816: The Home Office closes the case on the Luddite Thomas Pickup

28 Octr 1816.

Dear Sir,

Many thanks to you for the Communication respecting Pickup, & for the trouble that you have taken in your Enquiries, the result of which appears to be so far satisfactory as to preclude the necessity of taking any further steps about him

In haste
Faithfully yours
JH Addington

[To] Sir Robt Peel [MP]

Wednesday, 26 October 2016

26th October 1816: Henry Enfield sends the latest informer's report to the Home Office

Nottingham October 26. 1816


I beg to enclose for the Information of Lord Sidmouth, a copy of the last report of our Secret Agent

I have Communicated the particulars relative to the House of Industry to Mr Ichabod Wright (one of our Gentlemen of the County, who takes an active Interest in that Institution), & have given notice of the meditated Attack on the Frames at Bulwell to Doctor Wylde, a magistrates of the County—

I have [etc]
H Enfield

[To] Rt Hble J H Addington.

26th October 1816:Duke of Rutland's Belvoir Castle largely destroyed by fire - rumours of Luddite involvement

At around 2.00 a.m. on Saturday 26th October, a fire broke out at Belvoir Castle, the home of the Duke of Rutland (an occasional correspondent with the Home Office about the Luddites). The fire affected the older part of the castle and was devastating, not least to all the staff who were rendered homeless. But whilst many reports in the regional newspapers gave descriptive & sober reports about the fire and the damage caused, others rumours about the origins of the fire arose from the Morning Post newspaper in London, who gave a report on Monday 4th November which is worth quoting in full:
The statement which has appeared in the newspapers, attributing the cause of the fire at Belvoir Castle to the carelessness of the carpenters, is incorrect. A strict investigation has been made at the Castle by Mr. BEAUMONT, of the County Fire office, and from the depositions taken on oath it appears, that the room used by the carpenters had been entered, and found to be safe some time after the fire had broke out. In this inquiry it was also discovered, that the fire was seen to burst from two different places, which had not practicable communication, nearly at one time. It was further given in evidence, that when the alarm was raised, the nearest inhabitants found as many as nine or ten strange men already in the Castle, and an outer gate open, which the domestics declare they had previously locked and had not opened. There is now no doubt that the fire was occasioned by a wilful act, and the prevailing opinion is that it has been done by the Luddites. These miscreants are now more than ever the terror of this part of the country. Threatening letters are daily received from them. This morning four men were detected in setting fire to some hay stacks belonging to Sir WILLIAM MANNERS; the fire was extinguished, but the incendiaries escaped. Now, just as I am sending this off, there is an alarm of another fire, which has broke out in the town.
Needless to say, there was no Luddite involvement, and the Morning Post does not seem to have made any more of the 'rumours' afterwards. but we shall see that the rumours had a life beyond the newspaper.

Monday, 24 October 2016

24th October 1816: Informer's report on Nottinghamshire Luddites

24th October 1816

I went to Arnold last Thursday and saw Fell and Joe Gelthorpe and told them what Green had said, that the Arnold Chaps were expected to go to Bulwell and break the wife Frames there—Fell said he thought they could not get as many as would be necessary to do it as many of the Arnold Chaps would not go with Ned White, whom he said would go any time, but he said he would mention it to them—Gelsthorpe said he would go, and Fell said he would—I was there again yesterday morning and Fell and Gelsthorpe said they had mentioned it but could only get six to go, but that they had no Fire Arms and requested to be provided with some and they would go on Sunday night if they could have other assistance.—They said they could get plenty to go and smash every thing in the House of Industry, and that it had been agreed upon to be done, but the time not fixed.—I am to see Fell again on Saturday either at Nottingham at the Kingston's Arms, or at Arnold to know what assistance can be given them and what Arms can be furnished to them.—I was with Badder last Tuesday at the Goat—He said I expected a Job at your Town last night, that all the Frames were broke—that the Basford Chaps had fetched all the Tackle (viz. the Arms) to do it on Monday night and he could not think the reason why it was not done but it must between then and next Sunday night and he desired me to call upon Bradley and enquire.—I saw him again last night and then he told me they were [through] making Rattles at Nottingham and were going to Watch and Ward again but he'd be damned if they must not be shot—I told him that the Arnold Chaps had determined to destroy all the Frames and things in the House of Industry at Bulwell—He said it must be done but there was no such thing as giving them any assistance from Nottingham, on account of the Constables who were watching at nights and they (the Ludds) could not get back in the night undiscovered—We were together at the Unicorn last night till about 11 and then Badder went and I staid till 2 or 3 and 4 or 5 others playing at Whist in the parlour—The Constables came and knocked at the door several times, and asked for the door to be opened and said somebody were playing at Cards there—The Landlord denied it and said he had only his own family there and refused to open the door to any body—We went out at the Back door—Those that I played with were not Ludds—Two of them were Bakers—The Constables said the last time they came stopped an hour I think until we left some of them followed me down the Street but I ran and they did not get to speak to me—We should have stopped longer had not the Constables been so clamorous, and the Landlord began to be uneasy—I have not heard of any attempt to break into Churchill’s Warehouse last week nor of it being intended to be done—I dont know of any thing more intended to be done.—

24th October 1816: Major General Fane reports from Nottingham

Nottingham 24th October 1816

My Lord

In conformity to your instructions of the 24th of September, I do myself the honour to state, that since my return to my command I have personally visited Northampton, Leicester, Loughborough, and Nottingham; and have held communication with the Civil authorities of each of those places.

I have stated, as directed, my readiness to cooperate with them in any measures they may deem requisite for maintaining the peace of their respective districts: and I have endeavoured to learn from them their opinions as to the temper and disposition of the people within reach of their observation.

At Northampton, a number of Shoemakers are stated to be out of employ; chiefly owing to the stoppage of Government contracts: but they form but an inconsiderable portion of the inhabitants; and no disturbance appears to be apprehended.

At Leicester and Loughborough, altho a considerable number of people are in distress, employment is more plenty than it has been: and it does not appear that any good grounds exist for expecting any disorder.—Of the Society coming calling themselves the "Hampden Club", and their proceedings, Your Lordship has already been informed by the magistrates of Leicester: and I do not imagine it is necessary for me to say any thing on the subject.

In respect to Nottingham, and its vicinity, I have made all the enquiry I can: and especially relative to the recent outrages committed upon the Frames of manufacturers.

It appears that certain combinations exist, professing to have the object of regulating Trade, and the dealings between the master manufacturers and the Workmen.—That the persons so combining, have agreed upon a minimum of wages to be paid to certain descriptions of work: and that when a master manufacturer employs workmen at a less rate than this fixed minimum, his Frames immediately become in danger from the machinations of the aforesaid combinations. It is not a war against any particular description of Loom; but against all Looms, let for work below certain fixed rate of wages.—Therefore, It is to the power of dictation in respect to wages, to which these outrages are directed: and they are upon the same principle as those which have recently been detected in the Hat trade.

In respect to the temper and disposition of the people, I need not remind your Lordship that there are in this, and all large manufacturing Towns, abundance of Agitators and Demagogues always ready to lead the people astray: and that it is in times of distress, like the present, that they are most successful. That they are now actively employed in spreading as much as possible those lessons which are taught by certain assemblies in the Capital, I have no doubt: but that there is any particular feeling, amongst the great body of the people, hostile to the Government, beyond what severe distress is calculated to produce, I can see no symptom. To what extent this distress may in any particular case drive the unthinking, it is of course impossible to say.

I have not been called upon for aid from the military, in any part of the district under my command, since last I had the honour to address your Lordship.

I have [etc]
H. Fane
Maj General

[To] Rt Honble
Lord Sidmouth
&c &c

Sunday, 23 October 2016

23rd October 1816: Henry Enfield tells the Home Office that a target of the Luddite attack at Lambley has fled to London

Nottingham October 23d, 1816.


I am extremely sorry that my misconstruing your letter the 16th Instant should have occasioned you the trouble of writing a second letter. Enclosed you will receive, for the Information of Lord Sidmouth, the particulars of the Attack at Lambley on the Frames of Rogers & Shaw—the only further Circumstance with which I am acquainted relative to this Outrage I can only communicate most confidentially—it is, that I know Mr Shaw is peculiarly obnoxious to the Workmen, from having generally reduced wages & used Language to them of the most unconciliatory kind—This is stated to be Confidentially by one of our Secret Committee—& I therefore feel justified in imparting it in my present Letter—Shaw is under apprehensions so strong, that he is [going] to London to-morrow for the purpose of personal security—

I shall, in future, take the liberty of making communication to Lord Sidmouth immediately upon the happening of these dreadful outrages, should they recur—In these Circumstance they are generally very similar

I have [etc]

H Enfield

[To] The Rt Honble J H Addington

Saturday, 22 October 2016

22nd October 1816: William Playfair's 'Proposal Relative to the Prevention of Frame Breaking'

In October 1816, the Home Secretary was approached by a William Playfair, who claimed he had devised a plan to bring an end to framebreaking. Playfair was evasive about what his plan constituted, and sought guarantees that he would be remunerated. The Home Office papers contain copies of the letters he wrote, plus correspondence and a brief report by Sir Nathaniel Conant, the Bow Street magistrate who was tasked to correspond with Playfair.

Although I cannot yet verify it, it's possible that Playfair was the Scottish engineer and political economist, best known for inventing the bar chart. Playfair's ODNB entry notes that in 1816 he attempted extortion on at least two occasions, and this may well be another attempt that failed. But as his attempts to entice the government to pay him for his 'plan' foundered, we'll never know what the substance of it was.

The documents below appear in the order they appear in the Home Office files:

24th Oct. 1816


I wrote to Mr Playfair that in Consequence of his Letter to Lord Sidmouth I had his Lordships directions to see him—And I should be glad if he could do me the favour to call at my home before 11 in the morning the following day, or if more convenient on wednesday between 11 & 2 [o'clock.]

He sent me the enclosed note & the annexed paper yesterday.

N Conant
24th Oct. 1816

- - - - - -

London 22d October 1816

The Offer which W: Playfair has the honour now to make and which he before made to the Right Honourable Lord Viscount Sidmouth is as follows—

That he will deliver in writing to his Lordship a Plan by which at a very Small Expense without any Bloodshed or Severity of Punishment An End will be put intirely or very nearly to the Practice of Frame Breaking or the destroying of other machinery employed in Manufacturing but more Particularly Knitting Frames on the Condition that if the Plan succeeds he shall Receive such a Reward as to every two Gentlemen shall be thought proper proportioned to the service performed

The Principle on which the Plan aluded to proceeds is one that will not only prevent crimes in Respect to Breaking Machinery but will produce a Beneficial Effect by Increasing the Reputation & ameliorating the quantity of various British Manufacturers

William Playfair

[on the reverse]
Proposal Relative to
The Prevention of Frame Breaking
The Right Honorable
Lord Viscount Sidmouth
&c &c &c

- - - - - -

16 Union Court Holborn Hall
22d October 1816


I was last night favoured with your letter at the Request of Lord Sidmouth

I must have explained myself very badly to his Lordship otherwise he could not have taken that way of answering my letter

I however could not wish for any person more proper to Explain the Business to his Lordship than one Who’s Integrity, Intelligence and zeal for Public good stands so high as yours do

I beg therefore, that you will be so obliging since his Lordship has Employed you in this business, to Read the Inclosed Paper & deliver it to his Lordship—It only contains more Explicitly & Greater length the Offer I already had the Honour of making to his Lordship & to Mr Beckett before I knew that he was absent

Were I to have the Honour of waiting on you I should only have the same thing to communicate & it so happens that at the very times you mention tho’ you had the goodness to mention two I am obliged to be Elsewhere by Previous Engagement

You will have the goodness to say to his Lordship that the Plan I have is no Loose desultory one and that it is not because it is not Ready that I do not communicate it but for the Reason given in the Paper. I am now no longer young & I have a daughter who is Blind & unprovided for & I cannot think but that if I Prevent Expense & bloodshed I shall derive some Remuneration

Twenty years & Upwards & his Lordship knows its have I to the best of my abilities supporrted the measures of government without asking or receiving any Reward and as I know the Frank and Honourable nature of his Lordship I think it Right to say—"That if I had not heard from him I did not mean to press the matter but that the object being a very vital one I intended to get the same proposal made to Parliament when it meets"—So well am I convinced that I can accomplish what I have in view

I have the Honour to be
your most obedient
& most humble Servant

William Playfair

[To] Sir Nathaniel Conant Rt
&c &c &c

- - - - - -

16 Union Court Holborn
11th October 1816

My Lord

Not knowing that Mr Beckett was out of Town (which I find he I wrote to him to say that I had thought of a mode by which without Expence or any disagreeable proceedings a stop maybe put to Frame Breaking or the destruction of every sort of Machinery for manufacturing—I Requested Mr Beckett to inform your Lordship & it was only on Receiving no answer that I inquired & found he w not in Town—I mentioned to him that if on trial it succeeded I should Expect such Remuneration as your Lordship & he might think deserving and of course nothing without [illegible]

I have the Honour to Repeat the same offer to your Lordship I am

with great Respect
My Lord
Your Lordship’s most obedient
& most humble Servant

William Playfair

[To] The Right Honble
Lord Visct Sidmouth
&c &c &c

- - - - - -

11 Portland Place
24th Oct. 1816


I should have been glad to have seen you on the subject you proposed to the Secretary of State; but my directions being chiefly to say to you that if you thought proper to communicate the Remedy you name, and it should be found effectual to the Public; Lord Sidmouth would take care that you should receive an adequate recompence; but his Lordship must reserve to himself the entire right of judging what the recompence should be.

I am Sir
Your most obedient

N Conant

W. Playfair Esqr

Friday, 21 October 2016

21st October 1816: Henry Enfield writes to the Home Secretary about criticism of Nottingham magistrates in the press

Nottingham October 21st 1816

My Lord

I am directed by the Magistrates of this Town to give Notice to your Lordship (according to the Requisition of the Act of parliament) that at the Special General Session of the peace held at the Guildhall this morning (pursuant to Adjournment in the Nottingham newspaper of last week) it was adjudged expedient to put in Execution the Act of Parliament passed in the 52d Year of his present Majesty, & revived in the last Sessions, for enforcing the Duties of Watching & Warding.—

The magistrates were occupied to-day by an appearance of Riot in the lower parts of the Town relative to Bread & Flour—but prompt Exertions Suppressed the Disturbance—I am desired to enclose for your Lordship’s perusal a Copy of a Placard posted this morning upon that part of the Town where the Tumult took place

The Magistrates beg to avail themselves of this opportunity of addressing your Lordship, to state their Regret at the Slanders which are just now passing upon the magistracy of Nottingham thro’ the medium of the public press—They have endeavoured to ascertain the grounds upon which these unwarranted Charges have been made—but they cannot obtain any precise Information upon which to found legal proceedings found legal proceedings, should such proceedings be deemed worth instituing—A prejudice appears to exist, in the minds of some persons, against the magistrates, both of the Town & the County, because they do not apprehend susspected Framebreakers, enter houses to seize the Books of Committees, take up persons said to be collecting Contributions &c &c.

The magistrates are aware of persons reputed to be Framebreakers, & they have their Eye constantly upon those persons to detect them in such Acts—& they are also aware that parties meet at public houses under Suspicious Circumstances, & also of their being Collecting made by persons under Suspicious Circumstances—circumstances connected, in all probability, with the Framebreakers—but all this is [reputation] & Conjecture—It is represented that there are now in this Town, & in the County, various Subscriptions from the Frameworkknitters—some, perhaps, for the immediate support of Framebreakers, others for the Defence and Support of persons apprehended & on Trial for Framebreaking, &, again, others, for defraying the Expences of prosecutions (just now very numerous) against some of the Trade, for paying their Workmen's Wages otherwise than in money—

The magistrates of Nottingham have occasionally exercised extreme Authority in apprehending reputed Framebreakers, & they did upon one occasion venture to break into a Committee room, & to seize the Books & papers—But the exercise of this power requires the material Discretion—its Exercise upon every Application, or Suggestion, would, the magistrates apprehend, be highly dangerous—They have every wish to adopt the most Strenuous measures—& they would actively direct their power against the persons & objects alluded to, if they could feel warranted in Law & found Discretion in so doing.—

Should your Lordship be pleased to favor the magistrates with some sentiments upon these important points, they will receive them with the most respectable Attention, & will feel themselves highly obliged—

I have [etc]
H Enfield
Town Clerk

[To] The Rt Honble Lord Sidmouth
Secretary of State for the Home Department

21st October 1816: Sir Robert Peel replies to J H Addington's revelations about the Luddite, Thomas Pickup

[To: J H Addington]

I have the Honor of your letter of the 9th and have sent your letter to my relation who interested himself in the liberation of Pickup I was much obliged by your attention to my wishes and should be very sorry to find that I importuned in favour of an unworthy object my Friend thinks Pickup will be found to stand clear of the unfavourable report against him and will take the very first opportunity of informing himself of the fact

your obliged Servant

Robert Peel

Tamworth [21st Octr 1816]

By the inclosed letters [received] yesterday are on the same subject

[To] Right Honourable
JH Addington

A letter from Peel's nephew, also Robert Peel, follows:

Manchester Octr 20th 1816

Dear Uncle

In consequence of your letter enclosing one from Mr Addington I wrote to Mr Ainsworth and to Jas Wrigley who collect the rents of Bengall Square to enquire whether Thos Pickup had attended the meeting at Bolton or had been active in promoting it—

Wrigley says

"I received your letter respecting Pickups conduct and on enquiry I find that he was no way connected with the meeting alluded to—I have made all the enquiry I possibly could – I believe he was not present at the meeting.”

I enclose you the letter which I have received from Mr Ainsworth, and from what I heard of Pickup I feel confident that he will not meddle with any more meetings—His son is only 19 yrs of age and I can easily conceive that he would sign the requisition on being told that it would be of service to him.

I know the Magistrate who has given the information to Government and if you think it desirable I will apply to him to ascertain what proof he has of Pickups having interfered, but probably Mr Addington would not wish any notion to be taken of his letter—if necessary I could make the enquiry as having heard that Pickup had promoted the meeting

I remain yr affectionate nephew

Robt Peel

The letter from Thomas Ainsworth was also enclosed:

Bolton Octr 18th, 1816.—


I made private enquiry through well affected weavers whether Tom Pickup had attended the Bolton meeting, but could not learn that he either had, or had not

I thought it best to go to his house and see the state of his work and family—I found them all busy at work and apparently doing as well as things admit of—I asked him how he could think of signing Papers or attending meetings, after the pains his friends had taken to procure his release from the Hulks—He positively denied having ever signed a paper or attended a [meeting] since his return, that his answer to every application made to him, was, you have not had your feet in the Irons as long as I have or you would have had enough of meetings.

Jno Rothwell our old overlooker who lives opposite offered to make oath that from what he knew of T:P: he believes he never signed any paper or even attended a meeting for he knew of his having been repeatedly upraided for not doing so—while I was questioning him and family, his son Tom then at the Loom said "I signed a paper but ne’er read it" on enquiry I found it to be the Bolton Requisition—his father was not at home when it was signed and seemed perfectly ignorant of it—I really think this is the whole of the business—T P seemed very ill hurt and would very readily have gone over to Manchester, to satisfy you would take an oath but I sent him to Mr Jones who he weaves for to get his certificate which I annex—thinking that would be most satisfactory—I think he has behaved himself since his return pretty well, and his punishment, I hope, has done him good, and that his release will not reflect discredit on those who procured it.—

I remain,
Yours sincerely Thos Ainsworth

PS Being very much engaged I am obliged to get our Clerk to why my Letter as I am obliged to be in [Warrington] at 4 oClock

(1/2 past 12)

Robt. Peel Esqr

Since the return of T. Pickup who worked for us before his confinement and during which time his family continued to do so very industriously, we have perceived nothing singular [obscured] but on the contrary they all work hard, are sober, [obscured] Pickup himself at Church on Sunday. since he has procured cloths fit to appear in as he thinks

I am
[illegible signature]

Bolton 18 Octr 1816

21st October 1816: Handbill posted in Nottingham 'we will have Bread or Blood by God'

Brother Townsmen. A set of Justases as robed us for years by bating plain Hose from 1s.6d to 9 and Silk Gloves from 1.2. to 6d. They are now going to call out Watch and Ward to protect their vilony and oppresion but death to them that proposes it Brother sufferers I hope you will atend the Hall that we may not shoot wrong for we will have Bread or Blood by God.

Thursday, 20 October 2016

20th October 1816: The Duke of Rutland updates the Home Secretary about James Towle

By the 20th of October 1816, it had been reported in the press that were James Towle to succeed in his forthcoming appeal that the original indictment against him was incorrectly made, another correctly drafted one would be laid against him.



Cheveley Park 20th Oct. 1816

My Dear Lord

I felt much indebted to your Lordship, for the Information communicated to me by your letter of the 10th Inst, on the interesting subject of our late correspondence. Your Lordship, with some accustomed ability, and zeal for the public Service, has placed the matter in the best track, & whatever may be the final Result, of the Proceedings which have been adopted, I am confident that the Importance of the subject, will ensure my excuse, in having brought it before you. Mr Pochin has no doubt informed your Lordship of the Interview which he has had with Towle, since he quitted London, and of the manner in which the Culprit received an Intimation, of the Intention to prefer another Indictment against him, in the event that the Validity of the Objection waged against the former one. Notwithstanding the Paroxysm of Passion into which Towle fell, or that on that occasion, Mr Pochin has still hopes that when his disappointment has subsided, & he has again become calm, it may be possible to bring him to the desired point.—

Your Lordship has I understand, been made acquainted with the Establishment of a “Hampden Club” at Leicester, to the Motives, the Objects, and possible results of which, the Magistrates of that place look with considerable apprehension. Such an Institution, will I fear be a rallying point, for the idle and the disaffected, and it would be very satisfactory to know that there is in existence any Act of Parliament by which its formation can be prohibited, and checked in the bud—At this particular Moment such an Establishment must be regarded with more than ordinary Jealousy for your Lordship is, I am confident, aware of the uneasy state of the Country, arising from the universal distress which pervades all classes, and from the stagnation of Employment among the lower orders. The latter Cause has been less active since the commencement of the Harvest, and indeed the accompanying document, which will shew your Lordship the amended Situation of very considerable Manufacturing Town, is satisfactory as far as it goes, but it is feared that the Improvement will be but temporary, and the winter months are expected with Apprehension by many, and with Anxiety by all. The Landed Interest is exerting itself to the utmost in various parts of the Country, for the Support and Employment of the Poor who are out of Work, and it is self Evident, that the Relief which is afforded by Employment, is far preferable to that which is derived from increased Poor Rates. But the depressed state of the Landed Interest must cripple and weaken its efforts, especially while the Poor Laws, which press almost exclusively upon the Land, continue to be a burden of such serious and increasing Magnitude. I have been asked by several Gentlemen, whether the Government have it not in contemplation to adopt some measures for the Relief of the Agriculturalists, but this is a point of so much delicacy, and so crowded with difficulties, that it would ill become one to do more than to mention the Circumstance. On the whole I am strongly induced to hope that those parts of the State Machine, whose action is at present impeded and disordered, will gradually [illegible] their tone but this desirable object may not, & probably will not

[The rest of the letter is missing]

Tuesday, 18 October 2016

18th October 1816: Henry Hobhouse sends a furious response to Benjamin Walker's supporter

Oct. 18 1816

Dear Sir,

The inclosed Application on behalf of Benjm. Walker is not the first of the kind which has been addressed to the Secretary of State. He was one of the murderers of Mr. Horsfall, & deserved a Halter just as much as his Colleagues, who were executed at York in January 1813. But he had the good fortune to turn King’s Evidence, by which he saved his Neck. Thus the Promise held out to him by the Crown has been fulfilled. The pecuniary Reward was promised not by Government, but by an Anti-Luddite Committee, which then existed at Huddersfield: and if Walker were by the strict Letter of their Promise entitled to the Reward, it is to them, & not the Secretary of State, that he must look for payment; and certainly he has no merit, which calls for the Interference of Government on his behalf. But if I recollect rightly, Walker is not entitled to the Reward, because his Information was not given until after he & his fellow-murderers were apprehended upon other Evidence. I believe too I am correct in stating that Walker after the Trial was supplied with money through Mr. Lloyd of Stockport to enable him to find an Asylum in some distant part of the Kingdom, I believe in Wales.

I have [etc]
H. Hobhouse

18th October 1816: 'A.B.' writes to the Evening Mail with more information about Luddite Committees in Nottingham

Nottingham, October 14.

In my last I pointed out to you the existence of a committee, whose orders were promptly and regularly executed. I will now give you an instance with what decision the mandates of this committee are performed. On Saturday last night last, it ordered 100 men to enter the village of Lambley, about 6 miles this place, and destroy 36 frames belonging to two men in partnership, for having made use of expressions which this committee deemed improper. These men took military possession of the village, and in the course of a very short time completed the destruction they were sent on. Yet nothing is done to bring these daring rascals to justice. Placards are up in this town, inviting the inhabitants to prepare fire-arms, as they will shortly be called upon "to fight the tyrants who now oppress them."


Monday, 17 October 2016

17th October 1816: William Sherbrooke tells the Home Secretary that the Poor Law system in Nottinghamshire is in danger of collapse

My Lord

The Letter which I have had the honor to sign as Chairman of the Quarter Sessions at Nottingham & addressed to your Lordship was written in the hurry of business & though your Lordship will better understand the state to which the Parishes in this district are [illegible] to be reduced by a more detailed account.

The Overseers of the Poor give the weekly allowance to the Paupers every Monday & it is probable that upon the very next Monday or some early succeeding one that the Overseer in one or more Parishes may be obliged to say to the persons who came to relief I have no money to pay you,

The smallest number who require relief in any Parish may be stated at three hundred, upon the refusal these persons go to a Magistrates he summons the Overseer who will say & say truly, I have with great difficulty collected the rates for many weeks past I have expended on my own money & I cannot collect any more in the Parish

The Magistrate orders distress upon the Occupiers of Land &c but a process is necessary to be gone through before the corn & other articles can be sold & this will take up many days & the three hundred Paupers say we cannot return to our homes without money to purchase bread for the subsistence of our Families

The Law says that the Magistrates may tax other persons of other Parishes in aid but this requires a longer process & the three hundred Paupers are still at the Magistrates door. No legal recourse resource that I am acquainted with remains. This is no fanciful statement my Lord it would actually have taken place in Sutton some week since had it not been prevented by the active benevolence of the Duke of Portland & I expect that it will take place in the Parish of Arnold & several others. I cannot my Lord contemplate the distress & confusion that must ensue from such an occurrence without feelings that are not to be revisited & I confidently rely upon a remedy being found by your Lordship & his Majesty's Ministers for an evil of such magnitude, it must be immediate to be of any use.

I have the Honor to be
Your Lordships most Obt Sert
W: Sherbrooke

near Southwell
Oct: 17=1816

[To] The
Right Honble Lord Sidmouth

Sunday, 16 October 2016

16th October 1816: The Nottingham solicitor, Louis Allsop, updates the Home Secretary about the situation in Nottingham

16. October 1816.—

My Lord—

Having been from home a great deal lately, I had nothing to communicate your Lordship I did not therefore call, when I was in London, which, I left only on Sunday—On my arrival home Yesterday I found this Town & the County was under a considerable State of Alarm, in consequence of a great number of Frames having been destroyed, & of a general Impression that this System of Frame-breaking was to be continued, not only for the purpose of avenging private fancied Wrongs on the part of the Workmen, but to aggravate the distresses of the present times to such a degree, as would cause some open & public Commotion.—There can be no doubt of a considerable number of bad, but able men, in the lower Classes of Society, being engaged in these Scenes of Disorder—The County Sessions being on Monday, the Magistrates continued their Sitting till Yesterday afternoon, for the purpose of taking into their Consideration, the Situation in this part of the Country; I learn that an address is [illegible] to His R:H: the Prince Reg. (which your Lordship will have seen before You receive this) & that some further Steps are to be taken, which, of course, will be communicated by the Magistrates to yr Lordship—

There was a strong attempt made by Mr. Sherbrooke & some of the Magistrates to introduce a Requisition in the address to the Prince, to call the Parliament together without delay, to take into Consideration the Situation of the Country; this has been got over by the good Sense of [illegible name], Dr. Wylde & the majority of the Magistrates; It has occurred to me, that your Lordship might wish to know this, & I have mentioned it in Confidence, that yr Lordship may be upon your Guard—I find the Magistrates a good deal irritated by the attacks made upon them in the newspapers & many of them turn these Attacks on to the administration—All this is bad, it makes Gentlemen dissatisfied, cool & careless; & the Country suffers—It must be confessed that a Set of Country Gentleman meeting once a month, or once a Week, cannot do any permanent good—As in the present Case & while the effects of the present [Impressions] continue, they will do all in their power, but it will die away in a day or two, & We shall be quiet as We were; it cannot be expected that the Gentleman will voluntarily & gratuitously give up their time—

I find all descriptions of people finding fault, but no one proposing any thing, only confessing that something must be done—nothing specific has been recommended by the Magistrates—& I have said to some of them, why find fault with Ministers, unless You point out such Steps, as your local knowledge induce You to conceive, likely to be productive of some good—. they reply, it is useless, it would not be attended to—I press them to do it [now] to the immediate [illegible]—It has always occurred to me, that a permanent police should be established here, with regular police magistrates, a Gentleman well acquainted with the Laws of his Country, whose Education & habits are such as to enable him to associate with [illegible], & to have an Influence over the magistracy, & Gentry, & respectable Manufacturers of this County, that he [should] have Constables or people about, whose sole time & Attention, like his own, [should] be directed to the one great & leading [illegible], that the Jurisdiction of him & his Men should extend into the County as well as the Town, that he [should] not be embarrassed by any Ceremony as to particular Magistrates acting for particular districts that a full understanding [should] take place as to the Employment of the Military, & that, in case the present Laws are not sufficient, [that] the other magistrates will [should] be armed with sufficient Authority to enter Houses or other places to search for Books papers & Documents, of their own Authority, & that suspected men may be apprehended

I am aware that great difficulty & objections exist as to this latter proposal & I state it with much Diffidence, for your Lordships Consideration; it would be better if it [could] be effected; there can be no doubt that such a power in the Hands of an efficient Magistracy, would do more than any thing else, the men engaged in these Excesses, & what is of more Importance, the advisers behind the Scenes, would tremble, they would never feel safe, it [would] cause a panic—Your Lordship will consider this; I have no doubt it has & will be submitted to your Lordships Consideration by others—The Placards & Language made use of in the public Houses, shew an encreasing spirit of disaffection amongst the lower orders—They have unfortunately had nearly seven Years Experience; & common measures will not now do—My Friend Mr James Hooley, one of the principal manufacturers of this Town & a Gentleman of considerable property will be in London on Saturday on business—He is one of the Secret Committee, & well acquainted with what is going on amongst the men—It has occurred to me that he might give your Lordship some useful Information if your Lordship thought it worth while that You or Mr Beckett [should] see him—if so, I have settled with him to call upon at the Home Office, & he will do so, any day after three oClock; He will be at the Guildhall Coffee House, at which place a note will find him—& your Lordship can [illegible] your discussion, all I can say is that your Lordship may rely upon him—

I have [etc]

L Allsopp

PS –
Your Lordship, or Mr Beckett if he sees Mr. Hooley will obtain some useful information from him: He much tells his Story in his own Way—but he is very well disposed well meaning, with a good plain, strong, understanding.—


The address by the Magistrates will I, I understand touch upon the general distress of this part of the Country, the parishes, on the North Side of Town, on the forest, where the Land is very bad, & the population numerous, certainly being in a distressed State—When Men are distressed they are the more likely to be compelled, by the awful Scoundrels, with which this County abounds—

16th October 1816: The influence of Luddite Committees in Nottingham is 'exposed' by an anonymous writer to the Evening Mail


SIR.—We are truly, as you describe us, at the mercy of, not a rabble whom a few soldiers could disperse, but of a committee, acting with all the power of a revolutionary assembly. To form a clear idea of the state of this town, you should witness the receipt of a piece of lace by a manufacturer from his workman. The manufacturer stands as a culprit: should he, in the slightest degree, violate one of the laws laid down by this committee, he receives a letter the next day. This letter contains no ideal threat. Two or three nights have not elapsed before he is informed, that his property, to the amount of 200l. 300l., is destroyed: he is afraid to stir out after dark. Even at his own door has the manufacturer been shot. Should this unfortunate being reside at a short distance from the town, his trees are destroyed; he sees armed men on his premises during the night. But I hear you exclaim, "Where is the police? What are the magistrates doing? Is this committee known?" Yes, Sir, this committee is known—every member is known; it is well known to the magistrates where this committee meets every night. What will surprise you still more, this committee sent forth its agents last week to collect in the town for its support, and they absolutely preceded the collectors of the poor rates. The overseer immediately informed the magistrates of the circumstance, but no attention was paid to the information. I can assure you, the lower class speak openly of a revolution; they say they can, and will govern. These frame-breakers do nothing for their livelihood; they are supported by regular payment. Towle, who is under sentence of death at Leicester, has not made a dozen pair of stockings during the last three years. Thus a power resides in this country which bids defiance to all its laws, laughs at its police, assassinates, plunders, and destroys, without the least notice being taken of its daring outrages. Should I be known as the author of this letter, I would leave the town immediately, as my life would not be in safety 24 hours.



Saturday, 15 October 2016

15th October 1816: William Sherbrooke writes to the Home Secretary about distress in Nottinghamshire

Nottingham 15th October 1816.

My Lord—

The Magistrates assembled at the Quarter Sessions for the County of Nottingham are induced by the present distressed State of the Country, which is daily increasing to request that your Lordship will lay before His Royal Highness the Prince Regent the humble Address, and the documents which accompany this letter—The Magistrates feel it an imperious duty to state to your Lordship the great danger to be apprehended, in a more advanced state of the Season, from the failure of Parochial Supplies which in some instances has already taken place, and they beg leave to call your Lordship’s attention to the probability of the People, through the wants they are now suffering applying to them very soon in large Bodies, when the overseers can no longer collect money from the Persons paying rates for the sustenance of the Poor—

Under all these circumstances the Magistrates trust your Lordship will call the attention of His Majesty's Government to such alteration in the existing Laws for the maintenance of the Poor as may appear calculated to meet every emergency—They likewise beg leave to communicate to your Lordship that from the disorders which have recently taken place, and which are hourly assuming a more serious Character, they have considered it their duty to take steps for carrying into effect the Provisions of the Watch and Ward Act in those Districts of the County where the greatest disposition to Outrage has been shewn—

The Magistrates also learn from authentic information that the greater part of the Malcontents are possessed of Arms, they consider it therefore proper to state your Lordship that the Military force now quartered in this County would probably not be found sufficient to support the Civil Power in the event of any great degree of Commotion; and as it was found peculiarly useful in 1812, when great Outrages took place, to distribute small detachments of the Military in different parts of the disturbed Districts in aid of the Civil Power, they beg leave to suggest the expediency of resorting to a similar measure at the present moment.

And they fully rely on your Lordship’s support in obtaining a pecuniary relief which may alleviate the suffering already described.

Signed by direction of the Magistrates
W: Sherbrooke

[To] The Right Honorable Lord Sidmouth
Secretary of State &c &c

[Magistrates' address to the Prince Regent follows]

To His Royal Highness the Prince Regent &c.


The Magistrates assembled at the Michaelmas Quarter Sessions for the County of Nottingham, deeply impressed with the awful state of the Country, feel it an imperious duty humbly to represent to your Royal Highness, that several Parishes, comprising the whole of the extensive Manufacturing Districts of this County, are so overburdened with Paupers that it is with the greatest difficulty the rates have lately been collected to support the Poor, and as the Occupiers of Land have little to expect from the Harvest, a great part of the Corn being now perishing upon the Ground; there is the greatest reason to apprehend that Maintenance cannot long be found for the numerous applicants, under the existing regulations

The Magistrates find it extremely difficult, consistently with a sense of Justice, to tax other Parishes or Persons in aid of those now oppressed with the burden, and as the most alarming consequences are to be apprehended from the actual failure of the weekly revenue for the Poor, they dutifully submit to your Royal Highness the expediency of an early Parliamentary interference—The Magistrates are solely induced to make this unusual suggestion to your Royal Highness, by the alarming magnitude of the evil, which is more particularly forced upon their attention by daily practice, and upon the most mature consideration they are convinced that a remedy can alone be expected from the wisdom of all your Royal Highness and the other branches of the Legislature.

Signed by direction of the Magistrates—
W: Sherbrooke

15th October 1816: A man from London writes to the Home Secretary in support of the Luddite turned informer, Benjamin Walker

It was over 2 years since the former Luddite turned informer, Benjamin Walker, had himself written to the Prince Regent requesting payment of the reward who thought he was entitled to for turning King's Evidence against his former comrades in Huddersfield. Now, a man from London wrote in support of Walker's claim after having encountered him on the streets of London:

My Lord

I trust the subject upon which I now take the liberty of addressing your Lordship will plead my excuse for thus trespassing on your Lordship’s time

Some week since I will was accosted by miserable looking man who earnestly requested I would recommend him to an Attorney, and upon my desiring to know his motive he made the following statement to me

He say’d his name was Benjn Walker, that he served his apprenticeship to and afterwards worked at the shearing of woollen cloth near Huddersfield in yorkshire, previous and up to 1812. That he was one of the misguided men who suffered themselves about that period to be sworn in as a Luddite and mixed much in the dreadful occurrences that took place there at that time That during the disturbances a Gentlemen of the name of Horsfall was shot and great exertions were used to discover the murderers—That the Government and the magistrates and Gentlemen of Huddersfield and its neighbourhood joined in such exertions—the former by offering the Prince Regent’s pardon to any accomplice (except the actual murderer) who should be the means of convicting the others concerned &c., and the latter by forming themselves into a Society and individually subscribing certain sums (and particularly a part of the Family of Mr Horsfall the Gentleman who was shot subscribing £500) and constituted Mr Peace an Attorney of Huddersfield their Secretary and treasurer and annexed to the proclamation in the London Gazette of 1st May 1812 wherein the pardon before mentioned was inserted the following memorandum "And as a further encouragement a Reward of £2,000 will be paid to any person (except as excepted in the Gazette) who shall give such information as shall lead to the conviction of the murderers to be paid by Mr John Peace of Huddersfield" That he, Walker, together with a great many other persons were taken up on suspicion of being concerned in the many Outrages that time and were repeatedly examined by Mr. Ratcliff Mr. Lloyd and several other magistrates and Gentleman relative to such disturbances. That the reward of £2,000 as also the pardon were repeatedly mentioned and promised to him, Walker, and others if they would discover what they knew respecting the murder and other transactions it was suspected they were engaged in, but-that-no-discovery were then made and he, Walker, and many others were after such examinations liberated—That he was afterwards again taken up with a number of other persons and after repeated examinations as to his knowledge of the said murder and other crimes he was induced from the promised pardon and reward made to him, Walker, by the magistrates on such examinations to confess that he was one of the four persons present when Mr Horsfall was shot but was not the person who shot him. That immediately upon such confession and his naming his accomplices all other persons then in confinement on suspicion of the said murder was liberated and his three accomplices fully committed to York for trial and were afterwards upon his Walkers evidence corroborated by others whom he Walker produced tried convicted and executed—That from his having been the means of discovering and convicting his accomplices he has since then been unable to get any employment in his own trade or to remain with personal safety in that part of the Country—That he has made many applications to Mr Peace and those who promised him the reward to pay it him or to get him some employment but they refuse saying he was not the first informer—Altho they do not say who was nor have they yet pay’d the money, which he, Walker, understands is in the Treasurers hands as before mentioned, to any one—That he Walker can prove that he alone is entitled to their Reward and is only prevented from asserting his right to it by his present poverty.

The above therefore my Lord is the substance of Walkers statement and upon hearing which I caused an application to be made by a professional Gentleman to Mr peace of Huddersfield and the answer returned by that Gentleman was to the same effect as stated by Walker—Viz. that he Walker was not entitled not being the first informer this however my Lord from Walker’s evidence on the trial of his accomplices as also from the statement of several other persons referred to by Walker does not appear correct—and my Lord, from the enquiries I have made I am satisfied that his claim is just. Walker therefore requests that I will humbly implore of your Lordship that as he was induced through the faith of the promises of the before named Gentlemen backed by the proclamation and Reward offered in the London Gazette to give the required information whereby the discovery and conviction of his accomplices was affected, that, your Lordship will be pleased to refer him to some Gentleman who shall see that the Reward (if his due) shall be paid to him, or that some employment is provided for him to rescue him from the dreadful state of poverty and wretchedness he is now in arising from the before mentioned circumstances

I am my Lord
your Lordships most
humble Servant

T Broughton

No 3 Philip Lane
London Wall
15th Octr. 1816

my Lord
Walker also stated that Mr. Justice park—whom at the trial of his accomplices was leading Counsel for the Crown as also Mr Baron Thompson who tried them would if applied to say he Walker was entitled to the Reward

Friday, 14 October 2016

14th October 1816: A Hosier writes to the Home Office about the Luddite attack at Lambley

Nottingham Oct 14th: 1816

My Lord

It is with extreme [concern] I then take the liberty of addressing you, an humble individual, as I am, but when it is really essential you should be informed of the Diabolical proceedings of a set of dangerous fellows, who regularly sit and order a party who are immediately under their direction to go and formally demand money from the lower Classes of mechanics who cannot refuse them through fear, and at other times dispatch a Party in the adjoining villages to destroy machinery belonging to those manufacturers who may be offensive to them—I hope you will excuse me

This was actually the case last Saturday Evening when about 100 of these desperados entered different Houses of the peaceable Inhabitants of Lambley a small Village 6 miles North East of us, where they destroyed 30 Looms, and also committed many acts of theft, they at one House regaled themselves with Bread, Butter Cheese & Ale as much as they stood in need off, the remainder they wantonly destroyed

Two Looms which they destroyed belonged to myself and cost £72:0:0 & were then nearly worth the same money they first Cost—I have applied to The Revd Dr Wyld an active magistrate, who has given me a written Document to bring the whole of my property out of the County into the Town which will be done Tomorrow—

It is absolutely necessary something should be done and that immediately for our Security or inevitable ruin must be the consequence—

as a remedy nothing but sending us down a Police magistrate who knows no fear & some attendants to act both for Town & County or putting us under Martial Law or suspending the Habeas Corpus Act

Another evil I complain of is the 73 foot Regiment quartered in this Town being too much connected with the Inhabitants and ought to be removed should any general rise take place which we really apprehend they have not hesitate to say the Soldiers are nearly to a man on their side—

It is clearly ascertained & the House is well known where this Committee are sitting & that their only means of subsisting is by their sending Delegates to collect money publickly from House to House in both Town & County—

If it is in your power to do anything further at present I hope you will furnish the County with a few Regiments of Soldiers, as I am quietly confident the peaceable disposed Inhabitants must quit their dwellings unless a remedy is found—

With regard to the Character of the different People who had their Houses forcibly entered on Saturday I have known two principle sufferers for 20 years they have been uniformly steady & uniformly industrious so much so they have works accumulated considerable property—

hoping you will receive this communication as it is intended by one who revered the Constitution under which he lives, and any information at a future day I can render the state will be cheerfully done by

My Lord
Yr Lordships
most obed Serv
Robert Gill

Thursday, 13 October 2016

13th October 1816: Luddites destroy at least 30 Frames at Lambley, Nottinghamshire

At around midnight on Sunday 13th October, a large body of Luddites raided a number of houses in the Nottinghamshire village of Lambley.

The Leicester Chronicle of 19th October 1816 carried a brief article about the raid:
On Saturday last, about twelve o'clock, a party of men, computed at one hundred, or more, disguised and armed, appeared in Lambley, a village about seven miles from Nottingham, and destroyed no less than thirty frames. The first house they attacked was Joseph Lovatt’s, which they broke into, and destroyed his frames: while a part of them were engaging in this business, another part, called Thos. Needham out of his bed, and threatened his life he did not obey the call (the men frequently fired pistols in the streets, so that nearly the whole village was in a state of consternation and alarm). Under the influence of fear, he came down and opened the door, and as he was going up stairs again, they fired at him, exclaiming — "damn you, you remember Clumber-street." Fortunately the firing was without effect, and they set a guard over him, while they broke seven frames which were his shop. They also broke the frames which were in the houses of Arthur Kirk, and Joseph Godber, but we have not heard the number broken in each house. What renders this an unparalleled outrage is, that not content with breaking the frames, these depredators proceeded to rifle the houses, and actually took away a large quantity of property, shirts, stockings, and other articles. Various parts of the frames were also taken away. A very active constable was sent over to the place, but no clue has yet been found for the detection of the perpetrators of this outrage and robbery.
The Nottingham Review of 18th October also carried a brief article, with some interesting information about the supposed grievances which had meant certain Hosiers were targeted in particular:
Frame breaking.—Extract of a letter from Nottingham, dated Oct. 16, 1816.—“I am sorry to inform you, that during the night of Saturday last, the village of Lumley, about six miles from this place, was visited by a large number of persons, armed and disguised, under the command of the invincible General Ludd, who addressed his forces in a short speech, on the nature of the service they were then employed upon, and then dividing them into small parties, ordered them to their respective posts.—They immediately commenced the work of demolishing a number of lace and two needle frames, in different parts of the village, belonging to various hosiers in this place. In some of the houses, they broke and destroyed every article of furniture, taking away with them knives and forks, and provisions of every description.—These nightly depredators went to the house of a person named Needham, who was the prosecutor of Simpson, executed for highway robbery, last Lent Assizes, and they told him “they came to punish him for swearing against Simpson!” The number of frames broken is not exactly ascertained, but certainly they amount to more than thirty; and the reason assigned for this outrage is, that the lace frames were making what is called in the trade, two coats hole; a lace of the worst quality; alike injurious to the workmen, the honest manufacturer, and the public. This disgraceful article has brought the lace of this place into disrepute, and it is that which is generally sold by Hawkers. The two-needle frames are stated to have been making hose of 56 gauge for sixpence a pair, which ought to be 2s. 2d. which is now actually paid by some of the first hosiers in this place.
Finally, the legal deposition of one of the targets of the raid, Thomas Needham, is also interesting:
Thomas Needham of Lambley Fwk, who works to Messrs Rogers and Shaw, states that between 12 and 1, in the night of Saturday the 12th Instant he was awakened by a noise in the Village and a short time after he looked out at the Chamber Window and saw (being moonlight) a number of men disguised Some with Smock Frocks on—some had their Coats turned and one whom they called Ned Ludd, had, apparently a Straw Bonnet tied under the Chin and a petticoat on—they then went to the house of Lovet which is opposite to Needham’s and ordered him "to open the door or death"—he not opening the door they broke it open and destroyed the Frames in the house about 10 or 11 in number—Whilst the Ludds were doing this, Needham called up and armed each of his Apprentices (5 or 6) with a Pitchfork, being determined to defend the Frames in his house, but he then looking through the different Windows in his house and perceiving that every Window was guarded by a Ludd with Fire arms he thought it would be impossible to stand against them and in a short time after they came to his door and demanded "entrance or death"—he then went down Stairs and opened the house door, and as he was returning up Stairs, one of them fired at him but as neither Ball or Shot could be found it is supposed only to have been with Blank Cartridge—they then proceeded into the Workshop on the Ground Floor in which were 9 frames, 7 of which they broke, 5 belonging to Rogers and Shaw, one to Mr. Leaver and one to Rogers—The Ludds did not go up Stairs—after having broken the Frames they proceeded into the House place—and destroyed a quantity of Tea, Sugar &c—Spilt 2 or 3 Panchions full of milk and destroyed the Panchions—Eat a Pot of preserved Black Currants, and stole several articles of wearing Apparel—plated tea Spoons and Sugar Nippers—and on going away they called out "damn you remember Clumber Street" which Needham supposed alluded to his having prosecuted Jas Simpson alias Dann &c who went up Clumber Street to be hanged—The Ludds might be in Lambley about 2 hours.—
Of course, the press would have been unaware - and possibly Needham too - but the authorities knew that Simpson/Dann was a Luddite.

Sunday, 9 October 2016

9th October 1816: The Under Secretary of State for the Home Office tells Sir Robert Peel that a freed Luddite is involved in reform activities in Lancashire

The Bolton magistrate Colonel Ralph Fletcher had written to the Home Office in late September informing them, amongst other things, that his informers were telling him that a freed Luddite, Thomas Pickup, was involved in the reform movement in Lancashire. JH Addington wrote to Sir Robert Peel, who had lobbied for Pickup to be freed, informing him of this information, starting some interesting correspondence on the matter:

Whitehall 9th October 1816
Dear Sir,
As you interested yourself very strongly in favor of a Convict named "Thomas Pickup" who was tried and convicted at the Special Assizes held at Lancaster in May 1812, and sentenced to be transported, but who after three years confinement on board the Hulks, was liberated, principally on your intercession—I think it right that you should be informed that this man appears by a letter which has been received from an intelligent magistrate in Lancashire who is in Confidential communication with this office, to have been active in promoting a General Meeting, the tendency of which there is reason to suppose was of a mischievous nature.—From the interest you talk in obtaining “Pickups” release from the Hulks, I have felt it proper to apprize you of this Circumstance.—
I have [etc]
J. H. Addington.
[To] Sir Robert Peel [Esq]

Monday, 3 October 2016

3rd October 1816: Luddites destroy two frames on Woolpack Lane in Nottingham

At 9.00 p.m. on Thursday 3rd October, Luddites struck in Nottingham. The Leicester Chronicle of 5th October 1816 carried a report published in the Nottingham Review:
FRAME-BREAKING.—It is with feelings of regret, we inform our readers of another of those outrages which have agitated and disgraced this part of the country. On Thursday last about nine o'clock, several armed men entered the house of Mr. Winter, in Woolpack-lane, and two of them proceeding up stairs, into the shop, broke two of the frames, belonging to Mr. Seals, in the usual manner while several others in the shop were not injured. Mr. and Mrs. Winter being gone out, there were no persons in the house when they entered but some children, who created an alarm but the alarm was useless, as a number of armed centinels were posted in the street to prevent any interruption. When the work of destruction was accomplished, a pistol was fired, and they all dispersed. It is supposed there were at least fifteen men engaged in the perpetration of this outrage. We must again repeat what we have so often said, that these things ought not to be: being more and more convinced, that if they are persisted in, they will inevitably produce the effect, of driving the trade away from the town, and increasing the load of misery which is always so severely felt. (Nottingham Review.)